Mixed Methods Research Designs

Week 9: Mixed Methods Research Designs

Design ideas for fuel-efficient cars

You may be familiar with the many design ideas for fuel-efficient cars and their gas-saving engines. Some designs include cars that run on alternatives to traditional gasoline, such as biofuels, hydrogen, or electrical charge. However, the design with the greatest initial success has been the hybrid engine. As you may know, these engines use some gasoline and also use batteries that gain a charge from the energy produced by the car’s brakes.

Best end result for its purpose.

Like a hybrid car, a mixed methods research design combines different means to produce the best end result for its purpose. This does not, however, mean that a mixed methods research design is always superior to a qualitative or quantitative research design alone. Rather, the best approach to study a particular topic must be considered within the context of the various research components discussed so far, such as the theoretical framework, problem, purpose, and research questions.

This week, you will examine mixed methods research, including its strengths, limitations, and utility in your discipline.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Determine use of mixed methods research
  • Explain strengths and limitations of mixed methods research
  • Justify utility of mixed methods research in discipline
  • Apply APA Style to writing

Photo Credit: [Monty Rakusen]/[Cultura]/Getty Images

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Johnson, R. B., &Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14–26. doi: 10.3102/0013189X033007014

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Collins, K. M., &O’Cathain, A. (2009). Introduction: Ten points about mixed methods research to be considered by the novice researcher. International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 3(1), 2–7.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Burkholder, G. J., Cox, K. A., & Crawford, L. M. (2016). The scholar-practitioner’s guide to research design. Baltimore, MD: Laureate Publishing.

  • Chapter 6, “Mixed Methods Designs and Approaches”

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2009b). Mixed methods: An example [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 11 minutes.

Accessible player

Discussion: Designing Mixed Methods Research

Mixed methods research designs refer to a set of designs that purposively mix or integrate both qualitative data and quantitative data. As with quantitative research and qualitative research, the choice to use mixed methods research is influenced by the researcher’s philosophical orientation.

This week’s readings provide an overview of various types of mixed methods research designs. As with previous discussions on design, the selection of the most appropriate mixed design is guided by the study’s purpose and research questions and/or hypotheses. The choice of design links the research questions and/or hypotheses to the data that will be collected achieving alignment among research components.

In this Discussion, you will explore the basics of mixed methods research designs, calling upon your growing understanding of both quantitative and qualitative research.

With these thoughts in mind:

Please provide a 1 page paper to the following questions,

  1. “To what extent is mixed methods research simply taking a quantitative design and a qualitative design and putting them together?”
  2. Next, explain the types of research questions best served by mixed methods research.
  3. Then, explain one strength and one limitation of mixed methods research. Finally, provide a rationale for or against the utility of mixed methods research in your discipline.

Be sure to support your answers with the reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.

Context Analysis

Executive Summary

Summary of Context Analysis

Porter’s five forces, SWOT and the PESTEL analysis are the techniques that were used to evaluate the context of Nike in the UK sport gear market. Upon a comprehensive analysis of the market, some of the relevant macro-environment factors identified in the analysis include the social factors. The UK population associate internet usage, mostly the social media, with the young people. However, many companies and organization have internet in their offices and have already launched their social media presence. Context Analysis

Most of the managers and other high ranked employees in their late forties and early fifties arealso using the internet consistently. Companies in the sport gear field have neglected such markets with very few creating direct strategies to attract them. The legal factors were also considered in the analysis whereby the laws that govern the internet usage were examined. The UK laws guiding on line marketing were examined to ensure that the proposed plan was inline with the legal requirements. Context Analysis

The level of technology penetration was also highly evaluated in the analysis. Digital marketing heavily relies on technology such as the internet and computers to work. After evaluation, the level of technology penetration in the UK was found to satisfying with many homes, offices, and institutions using the internet consistently. The economic level of the UK was also found to support use of Digital platforms in marketing. The United Kingdom is one of the economic super powers in the world meaning that the many of the citizens can afford infrastructures necessary to internet access.

The political environment in the UK is conducive to the digital marketing in that the ruling government has measures in place to control on line marketing and internet security. The efficiency of the government to control the internet usage has created trust among the users hence improving the usage and creating a large online market. Companies and the government institutions have also invested heavily on the internet. Context Analysis

The Micro-environment to the Nike companyinclude the market place. Theinternet penetration in the UK has created opportunities and created threats to Nike. The penetration of the internet has created a wider range of the products available for the customers hence improving their bargaining. The internet has also reduced the bargaining powers of the suppliers to creation of varieties by the internet. With many suppliers using the internet to market their products, the company can identify the clients with the cheapest prices. Context Analysis

The internet penetration will the

Digital marketing objectives

Objective 1: To increase Nike’s web conversion rate from 2.0% to 2.5% between December 2016 and June 2017.

Conversion rate in digital marketing is used to refer to the percentage of potential customers who purchase the product being advertised. It is important to note that not every target customer who views the advertisement on online platforms takes the action the advertising company expected him/her to take. By pursing this objective, Nike will be in a position to acquire new online customers. This is expected to dramatically improve its profits within the 6 months period. Improved profits will create a room for the company to improve the quality of their services, thereby attracting more customers and retaining the existing digital customers. Context Analysis

In an effort to achieve this objective, Nike should be guided by the understanding that clients are the livelihood of any business, whether the business is being conducted through offline or online platforms. Successful companies in digital marketing such as Amazon have taken advantage of the potential presented by an increase in the customer conversion rates. This should encourage Nike to pursue the same objective and achieve an increase in the number of online customers.

Strategy 1

Nike will be required to make a decision of the best headline to use when delivering a specific message to its online customers. The recommended method to use is conducting what is called an A/B testing. This will involve creating two versions of Nike’s pages in the form of page A and page B containing different headings. The company will then be required to use a software that directs half of the incoming customer traffic to page A and the other half to page B.  The two pages will be designed in such a way that they will contain a call to action. The number of people taking the desired action (ordering a Nike product) in each of the two pages will be calculated by the software and recorded as the number of conversions. The page with a higher number of conversions will be selected and its headline used. Nike will use the same procedure to test other important aspects such as page layout, page navigation, and type of media. A/B Strategy will help Nike determine which of the two web pages can achieve the optimum conversion rate hence increase revenues. Context Analysis

Strategy 2

Use of strong CTA’s (Call to Actions) on every piece of content on all the pages of the Nike’s website. Nike will ensure that the readers can identify what they are required to do next while in the site. For instance, potential visitors will know whether they are required to click a button, fill out a form, or read a blog post. Towards the realization of effective CTA, the company will ensure that the ground work for the call to actions is laid properly. Prior to completing a certain call to action, visitors demand to recognize the need for doing so. One of the techniques to explain the need to complete a particular call to action to the visitors is by the use of informercials. Informercials establish a problem and offer a product that can fix the issue before requesting visitors to respond. Nike will identify the problems that their products such as a particular sport shoe solves then create proper informercials for every of their product. These tools will also explain the benefits of responding to the informercials by specifying what the visitor stands to get out of completing a particular CTA. For instance, the company can create an informercial explaining the user that he/she stands to get a ten percent discount on shipment fee if she/he orders for a certain sport jacket. The number of items per page will be carefully determined to ensure that the informercials do not surpass a certain level to irritate the visitors. Context Analysis

The implemented CTAs will also be crafted in manner that they will not be confusing to the visitors. Words like order, buy, or view will be used to cearly explain the visitors what they are required to do for every CTA. Complex language will confuse the potential customer hence frustrate them meaning that they might not respond positively to the call to action. The language will also emphasize on urgency. Active urgent language will be used to emphasize on the need for the visitors to respond to the CTA immediately. Phrases such as ‘offer ends on June 31st, ’ ‘order now and get a 10% discount,’ or ‘for a short duration only,’ will be utilized. Context Analysis

Strategy 3:

            The third strategy will be aimed at minimizing the risks for the potential customer. The customers will be assured that they can get their money back easily whenever something happened between their placing of the order and the delivery. For instance, the customer might be no longer  interested in buying the item requested for, the delivered item might also not meet the customers expectations created by the product on the website or the company might be unable to meet the customer request at particular instance. Assuring the clients that they can easily recover their money whenever there is such an occurrence will leave the clients with nothing to risk hence might purchase more. A no-questions-asked refund policy on all the clients purchases is one of the approaches that will be used to ease the refund process. Easing the process will ensure that the customers are not frustrated when requesting for refunds hence create a trust between the company and the online customers. Context Analysis

Objective 2: Increase Bulk Buying Via the Website from 20% to 25% in the first quarter and second quarter of 2017.

Bulk buying is the core of every marketing team of any organization that wishes to be competitive in the market. Marketing, whether performed offline or online must target bulk buyers to boost the sales exponentially. The benefit of selling in bulk is that it encourages mass production thereby decreasing the cost producing the items due to the economies of scale. With a lower cost of production, will help the company to offer competitive prices in the market and hence hedge out there competitors. Nike will therefore require efficient strategies targeting potential bulk buyers to harness the benefits of the same. Context Analysis

Before the end of the year 2016, Nike will establish the potential buyers and find the best approaches to encourage them online. Some of the potential bulk buyers that will be targeted include Governmental and non-governmental organizations, sports teams, and institutions such as colleges and universities. Such buyers will be targeted because, for instance, most corporate institutions run successive sports departments and spend a lot of money in purchasing sporting equipment and uniforms.

Strategy 1:

Personal Branding is one of the strategies that will be used to achieve selling in bulk. The company will create a profile section on their website whereby they will include the details of their top personnel including their experience and achievements. The profiles will be aimed at creating personal brands around individuals which can help market the company. Corporate buyers in most cases are keen on details such the people involved in the production of particular products. These kind of buyers normally associate the experience and achievements of the personnel with the quality of the products and are more likely to purchase.

The personal brands will help the company to build trust between them and other corporate buyers who can associate the products on the website with team involved in creating them. The corporate buyers can then identify the website a serious outlet for Nike due to the connection between the team and the products. The personal brands are also an efficient tool for marketing products because of association people create between the items and the personnel behind them. For instance, people are more likely to purchase a football when they are told that the person who designed also designs English premier league footballs. Context Analysis

The corporate buyers who also in most cases purchase in bulk are more likely to create a link between the personnel than the company. The Nike’s personnel represent the company in various events, where other corporate organizations members also participate, such as conferences and trade fairs. In these events other organization’s members interact with the Nike’s representatives and not the company hence they are more likely to know them better than the company. The knowledge means these buyers are more to likely to buy product from the website because they can identify the people behind the items since maybe they have interacted before.

The main reason why the strategy does not target small scale buyers is due to the bulkiness of details involved. Small scale buyers are usually scared away by a lot of details and usually ignore those details. Hence, the approach is inefficient in attracting small scale buyers because it achieves the opposite. The Personal Brands are unique tool that most of the competitors ignore hence has the potential to place Nike a step ahead of the others. Most of the companies in the sports gears and equipment industry focus on building their brand and fail to recognize the advantages of creating separate brands around their employees. Context Analysis

Strategy 2:

Content Marketing is another strategy will that will be used to reach out to the bulk buyers. Nike will create packages targeting bulk buyers such as a whole football team gear. The packages will be accompanied appealing discounts to the potential buyers. For instance, the football gear can come with a 15% percent discount on every item that makes the package. After creating enough packages to attract the bulk buyers, a section on the website for the bulk purchases will be created that will contain information about every package. The section will also contain the necessary tools to facilitate ordering and payment of the new packages.

After creating the bulk and purchases section on the website and ensuring that it is functional, Nike will create at least one short exposition video per package. The video will include the benefits of purchasing a particular package which will include discounts and gifts. For instance, a team’s gear can be accompanied by free gears for the team’s officials such as the manager and the medical personnel. The video will distributed via the three mainstream socialmediawhich are Facebook, twitter, and Youtube. One video explaining the common benefits of buying in bulk will also be created and be placed on the Nike’s website homepage.

The Digital Marketing Mix


Most of organizations whether in the in the sports field or not purchase sports gears and equipment in bulk. The organizations in the sport area such as professional football and basketball clubs must purchase the items because they require them in their day-to-day operations. Most of big Organizations outside the sports field also have sports department and participate in various tournaments. Both categories of organizations spend a lot of money in buying sports equipment. However, major brands in the sports gear business have failed to create on line marketing strategies that target these kind of buyers.

Having identified the gap existing in the market, Nike will develop full team sportsequipment which will be categorized as packages to target the bulk buyers. The packages will encourage big organizations to purchase from Nike because they will ease the burden of the companies of having to purchase single items from different vendors. The companies will also be relieved the burden of having to visit or call physical stores or officesto make an order.

 Packages with items that require specific details on them such as names and measurements will provide an avenue for the customer to do so. The clients also will be able to specify the number of items to deducted or added to a particular package to improve their satisfaction. The effect of such changes on price and discounts will calculated instantly and be displayed to the customer. For every package, the site will propose a number of free designs for every item where the client will choose one for every item. If the customer is not pleased by any of the proposed designs, a section for file upload will be provided where they can upload their own designs for some or all of the items. The customers will also specify the amount of a particular package they are willing to purchase. If the customers face any difficulties in the process, they will invoke an online live chat where they can be guided on the particular process and any other issue. Afterspecifying the details about the packages, customers can proceed to place the orders and make payments online.


Nike will create full team sports equipment and categorize them as packages. The packages will attract bulk buyers from organizations in and outside the sports fields. The selling in bulk will encourage mass production and shipment. Mass production will lead to an exponential increase in the amount of raw materials required hence give the company a chance to enjoy the benefits of buying in bulk which include discounts. After producing the goods, the company will also take advantage of the transshipping in bulk where they can also enjoy considering discounts.Nike will also be able to enjoy the benefits of economies of scale due their production, sale, and transshipment in bulk.

The benefits realized from handling the products in bulk will help the company to reduce the price of their products to highly competitive levels in the market. The reduction in prices will assist the company boost their sales hence achieve their marketing and business strategy.


The reduction in the production, sale, and the transshipment prices will give the company a room to offer discounts and gifts. The company will create a discount scheme based on the size of each package whereby the more the number of items in every package will attract a bigger discount. The bulk sales will also increase the profit margins realized per an order hence enable the company to afford sophisticated on line advertisements. Nike will employ advertisement tools such as inforgraphics and videos. For every package, a video giving extensive information about it will be created. The videos will be aimed at giving the knowledge of the components of every package and the benefits of purchasing the package. One video detailing all the packages including the benefits of purchasing them will created.


The entire marketing of the packages created by Nike will take place online. The company will their website and the mainstream social media to advertise the packages. The video detailing all the packages will be placed on the homepage of the company’s website for every visitor to view. The videos describing particular packages on the other hand will be uploaded on the mainstream social media via the Nike’s accounts. The three social media platforms that will be used are Facebook, twitter, and Youtube.

Implementation Plan

Control and Measurement

One of the techniques that will be used to measure the performance of the marketing strategy is the sales metric. Nike will be target to convert the top-of the-funnel numbers to customers, that is, influence the bottom-of-the-funnel results. The more the approaches used convert visitors to customers the more they will be considered successful. The manner in which the strategies fill the pipeline will be evaluated in terms of order place in specific duration of time. Increase in the number of orders in queue waiting to be worked on will also be a measure used to evaluate the efficiency of the marketing strategy.

Specifically, the increase in bulk buying will be the primary measure of the strategies used. Increase in the bulk orders in queue will be a positive sign that the strategies are functioning. The overall effect of the strategy on revenue will also be considered. A considerable increase in the revenues will be a confirmation of the effectiveness of the strategies applied.

The lead metrics or the middle-of-the-funnelwill also be used to evaluate the efficiency of the startegies. Increase in the number of visitors on the companies websites will also be a positive sign that the methods used are functional. Failure to affect the number of visitors will lead to the assumption that the methods applied have failed.

The number of likes on the videos uploaded on the three social media and the Nike’s website will be used to gauge their performance. The shares on the online videos on the social media will also be a measure of performance.


Motivating government employees

What is the role of communication in motivating government employees to engage ininnovation?

And reforms in the United States government?

            Motivating employees is essential to their innovation and engagement in reforms. According Dysvik and Kuvaas (2008)there exist several factors that are critical to employee motivation which include pay, career opportunities, communication, and positive co-workers relationship. Among those factors, communication is core to the employee productivity and their involvement in innovation. In the United States of America, government employees have been criticized for being unproductive compared to their private sector counter parts. One of the factors that have been associated with the unproductivity is lack of proper communication to the employees by the government.

US Merit Systems Protection Board

             In the US Merit Systems Protection Board reportDysvik and Kuvaas (2008) states that in an era of diminishing resources and increased expectation, a high-performing Federal workforce is critical. Susan continues to discuss how the Federal agencies can design their jobs and give rewards to motivate employees to do their best. In the report, Grundmann uses the Federal employee survey data to come up with a strategy, which can be sued to ensure optimum workers performance.

Autonomy, skill variety and performance feedback

            According to Choi (2008) employees who believe that their jobs possess desirable characteristics like autonomy, skill variety and performance feedback, are more likely to perform better. However, in a survey conducted by Choi (2008) most of the Federal employees reported that their jobs lacked at least one of the critical elements necessary to high motivation levels. Chiu et al. (2013)notes that the Federal jobs have a lot of potential only that the government agencies fail to communicate properly to the employees. 

Categories of communication

            Some of the categories of communication, key to motivation and involvement innovation in the United States proposed by Chiu et al. (2013)includeshorizontal communication and exchange of information across units of work. Korzynski (2013) claims that this kind of communication can lead to quality organizational problems solutions. Besides offering solutions to organization problems horizontal communication improves the employees understanding of their positions. Chiu et al. (2013) established that inter-departmental and cross-functional communication, and innovative behaviors are positively correlated.

Techniques of communication

            The United States of America should put more resources and efforts towards making workers realize the potential of their jobs.  Using various techniques of communication, the government can achieve a more motivated workforce, which can engage in innovative tasks. Proper communication will make the employees identify the difference between their jobs in government agencies and those in the private sector. The government can highlight the benefits of particular positions such as job security, and appealing retirement packages (Chiu et al. 2013).

Kind of benefits

            Such kind of benefits makes the employees more motivated and increases their likeability to be innovative. Appropriate communication acts as the link between the packages offered and the employee appreciation of the benefits that the packages bring forth.What is the role of employee empowerment in motivating employees to innovate in the US government sector? Are employees who are empowered through education and enhancement in skills motivated to innovate more in comparison to employees who are less empowered?

Employee empowerment

Employee empowerment is also another critical factor in workers motivation especially in enhancing innovative behaviors. According to Wendelken et al. (2014)empowering employees to achieve the best in their careers is very important to an institution performance. An innovative workforce is key in assisting organizations strengthen their competitiveness. Wendelken et al. (2014) suggests that the U.S. government must consider motivational managerial practices to help their employees achieve better performance and innovativeness.

Employee empowerment

            Wendelken et al. (2014) identified employee empowerment as an essential factor for creating trustful-relationships in institutions. Wendelken et al. (2014) stated that this kind of a relationship can lead to high performance levels and innovation. A previous research conducted by Choi (2008) using 248 institutions related to the ICT sector in Tunisia established that empowering workers produces a positive effect on innovation, organization performance, and trust. The current turbulent environment requires institutions mostly the government agencies to come up with innovative techniques for them to increase competitive advantage and hence survive.

            Choi (2008) argues that innovation is among the core factors of success and survival. This idea forces the government agencies to look for methods to enhance their innovation processes. Research has indicated that the ideology of innovation should be considered with the seriousness it deserves and as a learning process and knowledge plus skills development. As noted earlier, employee empowerment is crucial to improving innovation and hence the government agencies should ensure that it is perfected.

             According to (maite and kamau), since workers empowerment is critical to innovation, the government should focus on this section to realize better results from employees. The scholars also identified skills development and education as some of the best methods to empower workers. Previous research has also indicated that employees with a higher level of education and skills are more likely to be innovative than those with less. Chiu et al. (2013)suggests that education has the ability to broaden a person’s way of thinking and hence improve innovativeness.

            Improved skills, on the other hand, assists the person to successfully tackle daily tasks in their field of work. Therefore, a more educated employee is likely to come up with new ideas of doing things and use the necessary skills to implement them than the one who is less learned and skilled. Such an employee will generate a lot of satisfaction from the successfully tackled tasks hence be more productive. Chiu et al. (2013) proposed that some of the ways to enhance employee empowerment include giving scholarships and offering necessary training to the workers.Chiu et al. (2013)noted that with this kind of empowerment, the U.S. government can create a very innovative workforce hence increase productivity.

What is the impact of US government human resource programs in motivating employees to be innovative?

            The United States government has implemented several human resource programs to motivate the workforce to engage in innovative activities. Various programs related to workers’ motivation are also under implementation to increase employees’ productivity. According to previous research, giving monetary benefits is not the only strategy to motivate workers. Research has also shown that most workers quote several factors other than monetary benefits that lead to job satisfaction(Wendelken et al. 2014). Acknowledging this fact, the Federal government has implemented various programs apart from monetary rewards.

            Žaptorius(2013) identified that some of the monetary and non-monetary benefits that the US government is using to keep their workforce motivated include employee empowerment through education and skills development. The Federal government is also utilizing proper communication strategies to ensure that the employee identify the potential of in the positions they hold. In his researchKorzynski(2013)quoted the handbook organization as one of the non-monetary rewards being used by the US government.

            The handbook organization is a HR authorities and flexibility guide, which, is divided into three parts. Part one of the hardbook highlights the manner in which the existing human resource practices portray the United States government as a single employer that uses common policies. According to Choi (2008), first section of the Handbook is intended in making the workers realize that the government treats them universally regardless of agencies that the employees are working for. Choi (2008)furthers states that the section has a lot of potential in creating a highly motivated workforce.

            Dysvik and Kuvaas(2008)indicates that the workers will always feel more satisfied in their jobs knowing that they are treated equally and nobody is favored. The policies ensure that the government employees receive equal salaries for a particular job group regardless of their affiliated government agency. The Federal government must ensure that the ideology is communicated effectively to all the workers. Section two of the handbook organization describes the welfare of the government non-executive workers and specifies the workforce shape(Dysvik and Kuvaas 2008). The final section stipulates the flexibilities and authorities, which, is designed for the management personnel.

            Dysvik and Kuvaas(2008) argue that strategies such as the organizational handbook is key to workers motivation. However, various studies have criticized the government approach on workers motivation and maintaining a highly productive workforce. Critics have cited low employee morale among other factors in the Federal government compared to the private sector. Regardless of various interventions and programs, Žaptorius(2013) notes that the current rate of government workers crossing over to the private sector is undesirable.

            Žaptorius(2013) identified that government workers utilize the opportunities existing in their jobs such as Academic scholarship to improve themselves then cross over to the private sector. The migration is created by the perception that the private sector jobs possess more potential compared to the government. Wendelken et al. (2014) indicates that the perception is not always true and a number of employees get frustrated when they find out that the positions they left are more lucrative. The argument by Wendelken et al. (2014) hence shows that the government is failing in creating effective strategies to keep their employees motivation. Specifically,Wendelken et al. (2014) points out the communications methods used by the Federal government.

            Korzynski (2013) claims that the Federal government has massively failed in communicating the benefits their opportunities the workers. The employees cannot identify clearly the benefits of holding particular jobs in the government compared to the private sector. Lack of this knowledge has led to misconceptions and confusion to the workers hence the migration from government jobs to private sector jobs(Korzynski 2013). This example plus several others indicates that the Federal government is supposed to put some more efforts regarding workers motivation to engage in innovative activities.

Do employment rewards for government employees play any role in motivating employees to engage in innovation?

According to a research conducted by Wendelken et al. (2014) employment rewards whether monetary or non-monitory play a vital role in motivating employees to participate innovation. The federal government acknowledgement of employees’ contribution in their jobs is key in making the workforce innovative. Žaptorius (2013)  argued that non-monetary rewards such as academic scholarships and training programs lead to more job satisfaction hence make employees more creative and productive. For instance,Žaptorius (2013)  identified that academic scholarships give the workers to increase their knowledge in a particular field.

            In the study Choi (2008)  found out that with increased knowledge, workers get the ability to generate more solutions in their positions hence feel more satisfied. Increased knowledge also broadens a person’s way of thinking hence becoming more creative. Choi (2008) established a correlation between innovation and the level of education where more education leads to improved creativeness. Choi (2008) suggests that the government should therefore support workers to acquire more knowledge in their careers to enhance motivation.

Choi.(2008)also argues that Academic scholarships assist employees to switch from one career to another. The chance to switch from one career line to another helps employee to shift to other fields where they can achieve improved results. Chiu et al. (2013) indicates that the government must embrace employees who are willing to advance their education to make their jobs unique compared to the private sector openings.

            Training of programs is another non-monetary job reward that the Federal government uses to motivate employees to participate in innovation. The strategy is very critical to ensuring that the workforce is innovative. Chiu et al. (2013) indicates that the current college education provides the basic knowledge in a particular field. Chiu et al. (2013) argues that for the basic knowledge to assist the employee in solving particular issues, proper training is inevitable. The United States government hence uses regular training program to improve employees’ skills.

            Korzynski (2013found out that the government’s training programs are essential to workers motivation and hence engagement in innovation. Korzynski (2013) states that these programs improve workers’ ability to solve emerging issues hence generate more satisfaction. In the process of solving such issues, employees can also identify innovative methods, which can assist in result improvement.Korzynski (2013) indicates that training programs and academic programs are some of the government’s jobs rewards that have improved workers engagement in innovation.Korzynski (2013)  stipulates that without proper jobs rewards, it is extremely difficult to achieve an innovative workforce.


Chiu, C, Kwan, L &Liou, S 2013, “Culturally Motivated Challenges to Innovations in Integrative Research: Theory and Solutions”, in , Social Issues and Policy Review, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 149-172.

Choi, S 2008, “Diversity in the US Federal Government: Diversity Management and Employee Turnover in Federal Agencies”, in , Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 603-630.

Dysvik, A &Kuvaas, B 2008, “The relationship between perceived training opportunities, work motivation and employee outcomes”, in , International Journal of Training and Development, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 138-157.

Korzynski, P 2013, “Employee motivation in new working environment”, in , International Journal of Academic Research, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 184-188.

Wendelken, A, Danzinger, F, Rau, C &Moeslein, K 2014, “Innovation without me: why employees do (not) participate in organizational innovation communities”, in , R&D Management, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 217-236.

Žaptorius, J 2013, “Applying the Priority Distribution Method for Employee Motivation”, in , Business, Management and Education, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 256-280.

Civil Engineer

Why I decided to be a Civil Engineer

My universe

            Civil engineering completes my universe. Nothing else I have ever done or thought of doing in life that can match civil engineering in terms of immense joy and satisfaction I derive from the discipline. There exists not even a single day or occasion when I found a task from this field tiring or boring. Tasks from the discipline are quite challenging in terms of complexity and time but equally rewarding upon completion. My decision to join the world of civil engineering was more of a process rather than an event and was inspired by a myriad of factors like personal experiences, people, and World events along many other factors.

Critical role in the decision of choosing civil engineering

            Among the people who played a critical role in the decision of choosing civil engineering as my professional career are my parents. However, their contribution was indirect and at some instances was discouraging especially that of my father’s. My father is a medical doctor operating a line of hospitals inherited from my grandfather. Being his only child, my father saw in me an heir to continue the legacy from grandfather. He always insisted that I must take medicine as my career so thaticould be able to run the hospitals once he retired. Legacy was the only thing he was giving for my becoming a medical doctor.

Become a medical doctor

            Initially, I had bought my father’s way of thinking and accepted to become a medical doctor. However, in high school, I came across an article titled ‘the ten most disastrous engineering failures’ on the internet. I went through the article and what I discovered compelled me to do some more research. Most of the accidents resulted to massive deaths, loss of property and were attributed to engineering mistakes. I felt that these accidents were preventable hence the loss of property and lives. Upon further research, I realized the beauty in civil engineering in terms of gigantic, sophisticated, and professionally developed structures.

The process of developing the the structures

            The process of developing the the structures was to me the most interesting and I could not get enough of it. From studies I realized that some civil engineering structures are more than ten centuries old. The importance of a legacy that my father created in me was invoked and I felt that this was a very good avenue to leave a mark on the world. Hence I can conclude that my father succeeded in creating a desire for legacy but never convinced me to pursue medicine.

High school teacher

            My mother on the other hand is a high school teacher who believes that anyone can achieve anything in live provided he/she has enough passion and energy to work towards the goal. She constantly encouraged me to follow my heart when deciding what do in life. Her philosophy was that your heart can never mislead you. My mother convinced me to always follow passion whenever I had one. Having accumulated a lot of passion in civil engineering and desire for a legacy, finally I decided that this was my dream career in my final years of high school.

Civil engineering was my field of work

            Once I decided that civil engineering was my field of work, I embarked on a series of research on the discipline. In high school, I synthesized a lot of materials regarding the topic from the largest building to the largest bridges and airports in the world. The benefits and requirements of becoming a civil engineer were also some of the topics i studied and widely consulted about in high school. In my final year of high school, I also attended some few seminars about civil engineering. The studies and the seminars led to clear view of the discipline in terms of what i was required to become a civil engineer and the gains expected.

Future without an option.

            The clear view of the subject also led to the confirmation that in deed civil engineering was my future without an option. The studies and the seminars I attended also provided some basic skills about the topic such as project management. After completing high school, made the obvious decision to take and undergraduate degree in civil engineering. Up-to-date, the knowledge I have acquired in the university about this discipline are immense. The research I started in high school has also continued and increased. The university provides a lot of research materials such as books and articles that enhance my study. The university also provides some research guidance that have played a critical role in the accumulating substantial knowledge. I have also participated various projects supervised by the university which have assisted in accumulating practical skills.

Personal qualities that assists me

            Since I was young, I have developed some personal qualities that assists me in my daily interaction with other people in outside civil engineering. The qualities also helps me in approaching my daily tasks which require a lot ofdiscipline and commitment. One such qualities is ability to work with or without supervision. This quality is highly applicable in approaching the university assignments. The assignments are usually take way from class with no supervision but have specific deadlines. The quality is also applicable when going about my personal research since they unsupervised and hence can fail miserably if I was to depend on supervision.

Ambition is another personal quality

            Ambition is another personal quality that I possess. Achievement has been my driving force in my school life. My mother’s principle of anything is achievable where there is desire has led to me setting higher goals in life and start to work towards them. The research that have been undertaking since high school have also made me more ambitious.   Ambition has assisted me to achieve good grades in academics especially in high school that helped to pursue my dream career. Ambition has also assisted me to move from one level to the next when undertaking projects.

Creativity is also a quality

            Creativity is also a quality that consider to have held for a very long time. This quality was also a determining factor when deciding to take civil engineering as a career. One of the reason that I declined to take medicine was because I thought the field never allowed for creativity I wanted in a career. Civil engineering is a field depends allows for extensive creativity in form of designs. I usually like to imagine things and try to actualize them.

Articulate is also another characteristics that I possess

            Articulate is also another characteristics that I possess. I have an ability to explain concepts and directions to others with a lot of ease. I have used this articulate characteristics in negotiating with others, for instance, when convincing my father my decision to take civil engineering and declining medicine. My father was very frustrated but I was able to convince him that I will be able to manage the hospitals even when I was a civil engineer.

Cooperative and very team oriented

            I am also highly cooperative and very team oriented. I perform usually play my duties towards the achievement of a larger goal. This is the technique that I have highly depended on while approaching the university projects that are supposed to be taken in groups. The devastating effects of lack of this quality has been revealed when working with my colleagues in group project. Failure of one group member to perform his/her role can sabotage the entire project.

Transportation problems

            There are various problems existing the transportation sector. One of these problems include bridges with small load capacity than the expected loads on that transportation facility. Some of the existing bridges were designed a long time ago when the size of loads on those facilities was considerably small compared to current loads. Transportation of large loads has become a necessity. The biggest problem is that the some of these bridges do not indicate the required weight. Some of these bridges are also worn out and can bear the original weight they were designed to hold. Due to this problem various accidents have occurred from bridge collapsing. The problem has also led to loss of life and property in accidents.

            Lack of sufficient transportation facilities is also a huge problem in the transportation. The ratio of vehicles and trains on the rails and roads is very high hence leading to congestion in the facilities. Traffic jams and delayed trains is leading to high losses in major cities in the world. Overloading of the roads also makes them to wear out faster than expected. The amount of gas used by motorists in the traffic jams is so high in some cities such the governing authorities in those cities have come with measures to discourage private owned vehicles from using the roads in some days of the week. Train delays have also been a major cost to economies in terms of delayed cargo.

            Lack of Adequately skilled professionals is also a very major problem in the transportation sector. Unqualified engineers have been employed to design and develop facilities such as roads and rails. These engineers have led to poor quality facilities such as roads and rails. These roads wear out within a very short duration hence requiring rebuilding. These facilities have also led to losses in terms of accidents. Bridges have collapsed due to poor design and developing and caused massive losses.

Solutions to the problems

            Solving the problem of outdated and low capacity bridges can be done by an evaluation of all the existing bridges mostly those built more than ten years ago. A clear indication of the weight capacity on all bridges is necessary to ensure that heavy loaded vehicles avoid them. Height barriers should also be implemented to discourage high vehicles on those bridges as there is higher probability of these vehicles to be carrying very heavy loads. The next solution to these weak bridges is to redesign them and build them with higher load capacity.

            Lack of enough transport capacity can be solved using by a rapid expansion of the existing facilities. A proper expansion plan that takes the number of the users’ capacity and the anticipated growth. Proper use simulation should be done to ensure that the facilities with high return value are given the first priority. Proper use of the existing facilities should be encouraged to ensure that they are used optimumly. Coordination should be emphasized to ensure crises such as traffic jams do not occur and even if they occur they are solved.

            The solution to lack of enough professionals in the transportation sector can be encouraging students to pursue courses related to the transportation sector. For instance the number of students taking engineering courses at the university can be increased by marketing the courses to high schools students. Offering good payment terms to the engineers who join the transportation sector to encourage more people to join. Proper rules should be put in place to ensure that unqualified professionals who get involved in transportation projects are highly punished.

The Greatest Five the Transportation Problems

In the next five to ten years I expect to have

Social Media for Millennial

Streaming Video Services: The Importance of Building Brand and Brand Equity on Social Media for Millennials


Background of the research

The review of the purchasing behavior by Mizra (2016) identified Millennials as the largest group of consumer where they were over 75 million millennial consumers at the United States in 2015. The research also found that Millennials purchased products worth $ 170 billion within the year showing why they were an important cog when analyzing any form of business within the country. With the view of Millennials as individuals who are between the age of 18 to 35 years, the analysis of recent business and commercial trends shows that they are the main drivers of e-commerce. Kamau, argues that Millennials are the leading consumer base in the e-commerce as they have the highest rate of embracing technology.

Millennials own computers

In United States, 97% of the millennials own computers while 94% of them own mobile phones. According to Kamau, millennials are the leading group in the use of technology as they have adopted it in all aspects of their lives. They not only utilize technology for communication purposes but also use it to purchase products and services on the online platform. With the rise of online banking, social media and e-commerce sites, millennials have relied internet in all aspects of their lives that it may be difficult for them to suvive without the digital technology. Their use of online platform for social and commercial needs is expected to increase over the years as digital technology becomes cheaper and faster in future.

Consumption of television services

One of the areas that millennials have influenced is the consumption of television services. While in the past the cable television services such as NBC, CNN and Fox News controlled the entertainment industry, the high use of digital technology by millennials and the general population has led to new trends in the television industry such as the development of video streaming services. According to Solsman (2015), 56% and 53% of all consumers in the United States stream movies and television respectively. However, the streaming rate is much higher among millennial consumers as 76% of them stream movies while 73% stream television. Only 46% of all consumers watch the regular TV programs and among Millennials, only 28% watch TV at least once in every week.

Streaming technology and spend an avarange of six hours

According to Kamau, most of the Millenials have embraced the streaming technology and spend an avarange of six hours streaming in every given day. The research also shows that at least 75% of United States Millenials have one streaming device while more than 90% of the respondents pay for one streaming services that they utilize in watching online vedios. In their review of US millennials use of streaming services, BI intelligence (2015) found out that only 3% of the millennials have not used the streaming services. The  statistics showing how millennials have embraced the streaming technology explains why  traditional pay-TV companies have been forced to change their digital marketing strategies to retain millennial customers. Many cable companies such as Nickelodeon, HBO, Dish and CBS stream their programs online as a way of reaching broad customer base and to retain the market share among young consumers.

Netflix is the most popular streaming services

According to Rose (2015) Netflix is the most popular streaming services company among millennials as it had about 36 million subscribers by the December 2014. Hulu is also popular among young customers as it had an approximately 4.5 million subscribers in the same year. The company also earned undisclosed revenues from advertisements of its users who are not subscribed to its payment option. Despite its history as a cable media, HBO started its streaming services in 2015 with the aim of concequring the millennial market. By the end of the year, the company had acquired over I million subscribers who have a medium age of 35 years. The company has lagged behind Hulu and Netflix in the acqustions of millennial customers as most of its subscribers are slightly older when compared with the two video streaming company.

Hulu and Netflix shows that the development of the videos

According to kamau, the review of HBO, Hulu and Netflix shows that the development of the videos streaming business could not have been possible without millennials. The utilization of social media by the three companies when marketing their streaming services shows that the three companies have discovered the esiest way to reach to their target customers. The approach the three companies have taken in the use of social media to reach their target customers is however different. While Netflix and Hulu have utilized the social media in promoting and supporting their brands, HBO has utilized the social media in promoting individual programs. Vedio streaming companies have not only discovered the potential of social media in reaching their target market but also in creating meaningful relationships between the companies and their customers (Correa, Hinsley, & De Zúñiga, 2010; Spillecke&Perrey,2012).

Research problem

It is clear that HBO has adopted product marketing on the social media where the marketing strategy is aimed in distinguishing the company’s products for the products of its competitors. Neflix and Hulu on the other hand have adopted a brand marketing strategy in the social media where the companies aim in distinguishing their customers with the customers of their competitors. According to Kamau, the maor different between product and brand marketing is that product marketing focuses on marketing messages for specific market segments while brand marketing focuses on the broad market of a given entity. Brand marketing targets in influencing customers to choose the products of a given company on the basis of personal indentify of the company that is selling the products or services rather than the features or characteristics of the products that are being sold. There is hence need to understand whether brand marketing is a more effective that product marketing among video streaming companies when they are using the social media to create their brands among the millennials.

Research aim

The research aim of the study was study the importance of building brand equity through social media and how it will influence Millennials’ purchasing video streaming services.

Research objectives

The research aim was further broken down into

  1. To Identify the perceptions Millennials have towards the brand of Netflix, Hulu and HBO
  2. To indentify  the strategies and tactics that streaming video services have implemented on their social media platforms
  3. To identify the social media brand strategies that are more appealing and effective to Millennials.


Streaming video services that use social media to support their overall brand equity instead of individual programs are better able to attract millennial subscribers.

Three Research Questions

  1. What are the perceptions Millennials have towards the brand of Netflix, Hulu, and HBO?
  2. What are the strategies and tactics that streaming video services have implemented on their social media platforms?
  3. What kinds of strategies are more appealing and effective to Millennials?

Research report structure

Chapter one of the research has reviewed the research background on Millennial consumption behavior and their use of video streaming services. It has also disclosed the research problem, the research aim, research objectives and the research questions of the study that was implemented. The literature review chapter on the other hand includes the theories of brand marketing and review of the literature related to the research question. The research method section on the hand explains the research methodology, data collection and data analysis methods that were used in implementing the research. The research approach will involve a survey among 40 students who use streaming services for the quantitative research. It will also involve in-depth interviews among employees of Netflix, HBO and Hulu. The finding and analysis chapter has given the results from the primary research and the discussion of the findings. It has also given the limitation of the findings. The recommendation and conclusions chapter has outlined the research conclusions by showing how findings have helped in meeting the research objectives. It has also given the research recommendations and areas for further research.

2. Literature review

2.1 Introduction

The chapter has outlined the different marketing concepts that can be utilized by video streaming companies in building their brand and brand equity in the social media. Before explaining the product marketing and brand marketing concepts, the chapter has outlined the theoretical framework on millennial relationship with brand concepts and the influence of social media to millennial consumers brand engagement. The review of current and past literatures has outlined how different companies have utilized the social media in creating and enhancing their brand equity and recognition.

2.2 Branding

Among the areas of marketing that has generated interest in recent years is the understanding of organizational brands. According to Kamau, branding refers to the images that customers have regarding he services or products that are offered by an entity.  While in the past there was a great focus on building brand through packaging and delivery of services, Kamau (2014) explains how modern marketers aim on creating organizational brands with the use of symbols, mission statements and organizational culture. An example is how Tesla Inc. has built its brand as an innovational and sustainable company in the motor vehicle industry.  Brand concepts on the other hand express the brand interests and how it influences consumer behavior in a given market. The concepts include brand equity and brand perception.

2.2.1 Brand perception

The concept of brand perception is based on the ability of consumer indentifying a given brand from other brands or the ability of consumers to recall the characteristics of a given brand. Brand perception refers to the different expectations that consumers have regarding the products or services that they consume. According to Kamau, the brand perception may refer to the perceived quality that customers associate a given brand. To ensure the perceived quality is positive, companies build their brand by involving celebrities in the advertisement of their products and involving themselves in issues that are dear to their customers. Kamau asserts that the need of having a positive brand perception is the main driver on why modern companies are involved in environmental conservation activities that are dear to most of the modern consumers.

Brand perception

Brand perception is also influenced by the relationships that companies have with their customers. How the customers are treated will influence their perception to the company. How an entity engages with its customers is a huge determinant of their support to its brand. By engaging customers in respectful ways such as the establishment of customer care services, companies are able to understand factors that reduce or enhance customer satisfaction within their entities.  Customers with a positive view of the brand of a given entity also encourage their peers to utilize the products or services that offered under the brand.

Brand exposure

 Among the strategies that companies utilize to create a strong brand perception include the creation of brand exposure usually with the use of advertisements. They then enhance brand attention by ensuring the advertisement attract the target customers such as the use of sport and entertainment celebrities in their advertisement. The third step involved is the brand awareness step where the advertisement is passed in the mediums where they can reach their target customers. In case of millennial customers, social media is the ideal medium in ensuring the customers have interest or the brand that is being promoted. The last step of enhancing brand perception within a given company is brand retention that is implemented through the enhancement of the product and services quality to ensure they meet the customer expectations.

2.2.2 Brand equity

Brand equity concept on the other hand can  be defined as the added value that is given to the products or services that are given  under a given brand. Brand equity refers to the positive or negatve features that are associated with the products or services that adds or deducts the positive views that customers have towards a given brand. Kamau explained how understanding the brand equity of a given brand is difficult as it is an intangible concept that explains how consumers feel, think and act to a given brand. Despite its financial value, brand equity is a psychological issue among the consumers of an entity that establishes the price that customers are willing to buy the products or survives offered.

Among the factors that are used to enhance the bank equity within a given entity include the perceived quality, brand awareness and brand loyalty that consumers have within a market. In their review on why some brand have high equity than other brands Kamau2 found out that the value of may be explained by either the financial or customer perspectives. The financial perceptive explains the brand value by looking on the discounted cash flows that can be generated from the brand while the customer perceptive looks upon the customers views, feelings and ties that they have built on using the products or services under the brand that is given within an entity. When a brand is widely known, the brand equity is considered to be high as there is a high number of customers who are willing to buy from the product. Brand reputation also affects the brand equity of a company as bad reputation leads to the decrease in brand value. A case at hand is how the brand equity of Samsung Company has been eroded due to their exploding smartphones.

2.3 Millennials perceptions on brands

According to Kamau, the rise of Millennials as an important consumer segment has created problems among brand builders as they find them to be elusive. The question on what consumer want in brand has been a major concern among marketers as they are unable to understand the Millennials customer needs and the effective ways in which their entities can build strong brands that incorporate the market segment. The different customers and purchasing behavior among Millennials in comparison with other market segments explain the challenges of building a brand that incorporates their needs among different companies.

Kamau asserts that the selective nature of Millennials is also a major factor on why it is difficult to build a brand that target market. Unlike other market segments, most of the millennials are exposed to a lot of information that help them in making purchasing decisions. Most of the Millennials also have a high level of education that helps them in making critical decisions on the products or services that they consume. Another key distinguishing characteristic of Millennials is that they are technology driven and have more purchase options as they can purchase their products over the digital platform.

In explaining how millennials are different from other consumers within a given market, Kamau explained that most Millennials are not loyal to brands. The study by Kamau found out that Millenials consider themselves as rational beings and are hence likely to buy products and services on the bases of price and features rather than focusing on the brand name. The fact that Millennials also consider themselves as independent thinkers also explains why they are more concerned on product features rather than the name that is associated with the services or products that they consume. However, the research by Kamau, found out that when the features of the products or services are high, Millennials customers will focus on the brand when making their purchasing decisions. Unlike other market segments where companies only had to built strong brand names, companies that target Millennials must not only have a strong brand name but must ensure the features of their products are high and the prices are affordable to the Millennials.

There is also the perspective that Millennials are highly knowledgeable of their brands and are committed to brand that showcase their social and cultural values. The study by Kamau, found out that Millennials have a strong brand loyalty and awareness that they share with their peers on the social media. In their review of creating of positive brand among Millenials, Kamau, found out that millennials respond to brand that target them individually or brands that have personal touch with their lives. The concession among many scholars is that Millennials are highly ware of their brands and are involved in the interacting, co creating and sharing information of the brands they love. Due to the rise of the social media, they have a high discretion on the brands that they want and play a strong role in identifying the direction of the brands of the products or services that they consume.

Kamau asserts that Millenials are not aloof to different brands as they actively engage to the brands that they feel they are connected to. They are likely to choose the brands that they can relate to such as the brands that bring out their image and that correlate with their indentity. However, as not  all millennial consumers are enthusiastic in the creation of new brands, orginzations that come up with reward systems in creation of their brands have a high number of Millenials brand engagement in comparison with organizations that lack any form of a reward system. The use of social media gives the  Millenials an edge in influencing the direction of the brands they consume as they are able to share their experiencies with their peers in an easy way. In case of a problem on a brand they consume, Millennials are able to share the bad experience and reduce the brand equity of a given company.

2.4 Millennials brand engagement and the social media

Among the concepts that influence consumer perspective towards a given brand is the level of engagement they have with the brand. According to kamau, brand engagement refers to the emotional, behavioral and cognitive investments among consumers when they are interacting with a given brand. Brnad engagement refers to the relationship that consumers have with their brands such as their willingness of influencing their friends to use the products or services within a given brand. With the rise of social media, companies have been able to built new platforms of creating brand engagement particularly to Millennials consumers who use social media regularly.

The research by kamau that showed how engaged consumers have high levels of brand loyalty, connection and satisfaction explains why most of the companies in different markets have aimed in creating brand engagement with different consumer market segments. When trying to enhance brands engagement with Millennials customers, Kamau explains how the use of social media such as facebook and twitter is an effective method in creating string connections between the target customers and different brands. The heavy use of social media by Millennials explains why they are highly connected to companies that utilize the platform in connecting with them. Unlike other market segments, Millennials utilize the social media in being actively involved with the formation of the brands that they favor.

With the use of Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) that can either be negative or positive, Millennials consumers are able to contribute to the growth of all aspects of the brands. Companies that require building strong brand engagement with the Millennials must be willing to involve them in brands development as a way of creating customer loyalty and brand support among the market segment. According to Kamau, the review of empirical and non empirical literature shows that brands that utilize social media have strong engagement with Millennials customers in comparison with brands that have not embraced the social media.

 However, their views are opposed by the research of Kamau who urged that brand engagement is built by different factors such as the quality of services and products offered under the brand implying that social media has low impact on brand engagement. He asserts that brands that have entred into the social media have been exploited by the consumers who use the platform in criticizing any marketing efforts that are made in building the brands. Kamau, explained how the use of social media such as facebook, twitter and Instargram in promoting the brands has been seen as invasion of personal privacy leading to negative engagement with the Millennials customers. The research carried out by IBM also asserted that consumers follow the brands in the social media not to build a relationship but to gain tangible vale from the brand that is being marketed. Customers will hence follow the brands that offer discounts, raffles and loyalty points in the social media in comparison with companies that do not offer any promotion on the social media accounts.

One of the concepts that have been developed in explaining how brands can build strong relationship with their customers is the social customer relationship management (SCRM). It is a business practice that aim on engaging with consumers of a company over the social meida with the view of building brand connection and loyalty. The strategy has been employed by companies that have customers whom use social media in offering criticism or complaints from the services or products offered by a particular brand. Kamau argues that companies that respond to consumer complaints when pushed by consumers have the ability of building strong relationship with the consumers as consumers will recognize their role in changing the direction of the brand.

Kamau asserted that not all individuals who like the brand in the social media are its customers. When customers choose the associate themselves with a given brand such as liking the brand page on Facebook or following the brand on twitter, they are referred to the online community of the brand. Being a member of the online community of the brand is the first step that Millennials connect with the brand to form powerful engagement. The type of social media engagement with a brand can also be considered as low or high. While some companies such as Apple Inc. has created a high level of customer engagement with their Millennials consumers, some companies such as Blackberry created week engagement with the target market, leading to their poor performance.

2.5 Social media marketing strategies to Millennials

2.5.1 Product marketing strategies

Definition of product marketing  strategy,  its advantages and limitations.

2.5.2 Brand marketing strategies

Its definition, advantages and limitations and why it is favored when compared to product marketing strategy.

ADHD hyperactivity and hypomania episodes

ADHD hyperactivity and hypomania episodes

            You have provided an impeccable response to the initial posting, particularly addressing some of the symptom associated differences between ADHD hyperactivity and hypomania episodes. In this regard, the response demonstrates a high level of understanding regarding the two categories of mental disorder. Nevertheless, the issue concerning the maladies’ impacts on the victim’s functioning is not clearly articulated in the response. Furthermore, apart from feature related issues, there exists a wide range of unclear issues concerning hypomania and ADHD hyperactivity, especially involving the cause and prevention of the psychiatric ailments. Therefore, despite being highly informative, the response fails to satisfactorily answer the Major Depressive Disorder questions that are raised in the initial posting. 

            Although hyperactivity and hypomania are seemingly symptomatic similar, an in-depth focus on their symptomology establishes defined manifestations and characteristics that are unique for each of the disorders. For instance, an episode of hypomania must include at least three symptoms, which include insomnia, high self esteem and excessive talking, lasting for four without fluctuations. On the other hand, ADHD hyperactivity manifestations include fidgeting, excessive talking and uneasiness. The existing difference between the symptoms of the disorders is highly essential in classifying patients, hence administering the correct therapy. In addition, the two psychiatric ailments possess varied impacts on the patient’s functioning, whereby one of them comprises coordination, while the other does not. Nevertheless, from the response, it seems that both of the disorders have an effect on a person’s functioning. In addition, the response totally ignores the issue of causes and preventive measures, which maybe can offer meaningful insights regarding the differences or similarities between hyperactivity and hypomania episodes. Therefore, the response offers meaningful information regarding classification and treatment of the ailments, but fails to address the entire issue as raised in the initial postinsg.

Activism of the Opposites and the LGBTQ community

Activism of the Opposites and the LGBTQ community

In most cases, activism is based and driven by the ideology of perceived or actual oppression emanating from the human limitations in the interpretation and definition of nature. Martha P. Johnson, an agile gender activist of the 1970s, when the minority groups were highly oppressed in the US, is highly credited for her tremendous contribution in the liberation of the minority LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer) community. On the other hand, Richard Spencer is in the process of engineering a twenty-first century wave advocating for the white supremacy to oppress the minority in a time that the groups have made substantial progress in struggles for equality in country. Although Johnson and Spencer activism is bound to have some differences and similarities, because of the intricate nature of definition, both seem to ideologically work from opposite directions in different times, subjects and situations. Therefore, from their phased activism, it is clear that the biggest problem for humanity is interpretation which immensely determines a society’s collective memories, as well as the imagined futures.          

Activists Johnson and Spencer similarities and differences clearly reveal that the natural limitation of definition leads to sporadic understanding regarding the boundaries of advocacy should operate. The primary intention of Johnson and Spencer centers on acquiring their ‘perceived rightful best’ for their communities. However, the ‘perceived rightful best’ for both activists is highly influenced by time, hence totally different or opposite. Johnson intended to liberate the LGBTQ minority in a dominantly heterosexual society of the 70s, with the primary objective of attaining equality. On the other hand, Spencer’s intention is to regain white supremacy at a time the community has ceded substantial ground to embrace equality. In the execution of their endeavors, both activists reveal some similarities and differences as well. Spencer and Johnson utilize both acceptable and unacceptable means in their course. For instance, Johnson, using a down-top approach, instigated several riots, such as the “Stonewall Riots,” in the late sixties and throughout the seventies, while Spencer, utilizing a top-down technique, has been involved in several incidences of online bullying (Ryan, 2017). However, the primary motive by Johnson was to mobilize the LGBTQ courage to stand against discrimination, “which is why time and again gender-variant people have been at the forefront of queer rebellions, like Stonewall” (Ryan, 2017).  On the other hand, “Spencer subscribes zealously to the idea that America’s white population is endangered” (Harkinson, 2017). His and companion’s “Look at me! Look at me! I the GOP now!” chants at a dinner, indicate that Spencer is focusing on the attention of the highest echelons of politics to acquire substantial power to contain the perceived danger from the people of color (Harkinson). Therefore, Johnson and Spencer reveal a strange phenomenon, because while using different methods to acquire opposing objectives, both are still within the realm of activism.

                      Spencer and Johnson activism immensely contribute to the collective memory of the majority against minority battles, as well as the imagined futures of a completely free American society. The activists remind the American people that the battle of oppression and supremacy constantly exists throughout the American history, because of a wrong understanding of the difference that defines minority and the majority. For instance, the gender war emanates from the understanding that a man is superior, because he is not a woman, while straight is perceived better, because it is not gay. Thus, because there is no factual support to such understanding, the imagined futures of a free or a race dominated society is a mirage, but supremacy and equality battles will probably proceed to eternity.


Harkinson, J. (2017, June 23). Meet the white nationalist trying to ride the Trump train to lasting power. Retrieved from https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2016/10/richard-spencer-trump-alt-right-white-nationalist/

Ryan, H. (2017, October 6). Power to the People: Exploring Marsha P. Johnson’s Queer Liberation. Retrieved from https://www.out.com/out-exclusives/2017/8/24/power-people-exploring-marsha-p-johnsons-queer-liberation

The Wesfarmer’s 2017 financial year report

The Wesfarmer’s 2017 financial year report

  • The Wesfarmer’s 2017 financial year report indicates that the company utilizes AASB117 accounting lease standards to recognize risks and rewards attributed to ownership of a leased asset. AASB117 accounting lease standards include the concept of separating finance and operating leases for the lessees (Joubert, Garvie & Parle, 2017). In this regard, Westfarmers group focuses on categorization of leases considering the extent in which rewards and risks associated with ownership of a leased asset are distributed between the lessee and the lessor. A lease transferring all the rewards and risks attributed to ownership from the lessor to the lessee is considered a finance lease. On the other hand, if a lease partially transfers all the rewards and risks associated with ownership from the lessor to lessee is classified as an operating lessee. Both categories of leases are differently accounted for in the balance sheet (McGaughey, 2018). The company accounting for operating leases is conducted on a straight line basis. For instance, the company does not recognize unforeseeable rents on the balance sheet, as well as liability and interests from the right of use at a cost, because their impacts are deemed inconsequential. Therefore, the firm utilizes the present value of assets to make purchases at the end of a lease.

Wesfarmers Group lease commitment for the 2015 can be calculated using an operation lease based model as shown below.

Group as a Lessee
Within one year2,4102,410*1228920
Less than or equal to five years7,9867,986*60479160
25 years and below9,1589,158*3002747400
Group as a Lessor   
Within one year1818*12216
Less than or equal to five years3737*602220
25 years and below77*3002100
Therefore, the company’s Straight-line operating lease responsibility  for years 1 to 25 is($3260016/ 25 years)                                                                                                             $130400.64
  • AASB lease accounting standards largely affect the lessee, but maintain most of the previous requirements for the lessor. In this regard, Wesfarmers, by fully adopting the AASB standards, will have to cease the use of lease categorization in accounting. In addition, the company will have to adopt the present discounted value model of recognizing risks and rewards associated with ownership of a leased property (Wesfarmers Group, 2018). Thus, the company will accommodate all the risks and rewards associated with ownership of an asset in the balance sheet. In this regard, Wesfarmers will have to consider unforeseeable rent in the balance. Moreover, the company will have to measure the liabilities and their interests, as well as right of use at cost for all the leases.   However, the company will stop recognizing low value asset leases, such as computers and accessories. Furthermore, the Wesfarmers group will start to only recognize leases that have duration of one year and above. Therefore, as lessee, the company will accommodate all the risks and rewards of ownership, while its responsibilities as a lessor will diminish.


Joubert, M., Garvie, L., & Parle, G. (2017). Implications of the New Accounting Standard for Leases AASB 16 (IFRS 16) with the Inclusion of Operating Leases in the Balance Sheet. Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends15(2).

McGaughey, F. (2018). Australia’s proposed Modern Slavery Act for business reporting-part of an international trend in business and human rights. Australian Resources and Energy Law Journal36(3), 29.

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Accessibility for E-book vs. Printed Books

Accessibility for E-book vs. Printed Books

Although a significant number of people still prefer print media, especially for its tactile nature, eBooks possess numerous unique benefits over the conventional printed books. Accessibility is one of the primary factors that cement the position of eBooks in defining current and future reading. Unlike in the traditional library where readers are often required to make visits and conduct tedious searches to find a book, accurate online searches are easy to conduct and take considerably reduced amount of time to identify materials from digital libraries. Furthermore, regardless of the physical distance, readers take significantly less amount of time to navigate from one library to another over the internet.

Within a few seconds, an online reader can navigate from Harvard University library in the US to Cambridge University library in the UK. The least amount of time required to cover the physical distance between the US and London by flight is 10 hours. Because of the tedious and costly journeys, it can be extremely difficult and sometime impossible for readers to access printed media in physical libraries, especially when online library support cannot offer substantial assistance. Therefore, although conventional printed media still remains relevant among a section of readers, there are numerous situations, especially regarding accessibility, when eBooks are more advantageous than printed books.

The amount of time, effort and cost required to access eBooks from different libraries across the world is considerable small when compared to printed books. With increasing global internet and electronic gadget penetration, more and more people can easily access a wide range of global repositories to rent or purchase eBooks from different parts of the world. Readers can access eBooks from the comfort of their homes, offices or any other places. Moreover, because eBooks are considerably easier to reproduce when compared to the traditional printed Books which require significant amount of resources including papers, ink and technology to make copies, they are considerably cheaper. In this regard, eBooks are accessible to many people who cannot afford to buy or rent original copies of printed books. Furthermore, unlike printed books, which are relatively bulky, eBooks can be stored in small devices, such as flash disks and memory cards, hence are highly portable.

 Readers in a location with internet access can download eBooks from the internet and store them in their personal devices, such as computers and smartphones, to read later when outside the range of internet coverage. On the other hand, bulky printed books re extremely demanding to transport from one location to another. A reader can barely carry three copies of a standard book to read away from the physical library. In addition, shipment of purchases from physical libraries include significant logistical challenges that make printed books costly and time consuming to access. Thus, eBooks, for being less demanding to access for many people significantly determine the shape of the reading community across the entire world.