Employment Law

Employment Law

The case to review is one that involves Simon, an employee in the renowned MNC. In the institution, he works under the leadership of Mr. Smith who is a senior manager in the institution. There are some issues that have arose over the recent past and this is where the employee has felt that he is being mistreated. He is unhappy in his place of work and this is noted from the fact that after a heated argument with the boss, he sheds tears and leaves that place of work. It is imperative to go through some of the legal options that Simon has after the altercation and consequently find justice through the contemporary justice system. Employment Law

            It is imperative to note that there are some major employee law rights that are present in the business environment and after reviewing the case, it is possible to find that they were all broken by the boss. It is essential for bosses to understand these laws. Some of the leaders are unaware of these but it is the responsibility of the company to administer these laws. Given the fact that MNC is a huge company and is known by many people, then it is possible to note that Mr. Smith understood these laws clearly and was just ignorant and disrespectful to Simon.

            One of the employee law rights to note is the right to know (O’Connor, 2017). According to the rules of the contract that Simon has with the company, he is required to offer his services to the company in case the amount of work or another employee fails to show up. However, he is supposed to handle this work as long as the assignment is in his purview. The amount of work that Mr. Smith had accorded Simon was way too much and given the fact that he was even required to man the front desk shows that this was some form of overworking. Rather than asking Simon whether he was comfortable, he went ahead and gave him the tasks. It is important to note that the right to know was breached here and this is where he had the right to know that he would be getting some additional tasks. Upon knowing this, he should have protested early against this form of inconsideration in the company. Simon has the right to sue the company because of this. Employment Law

            The right to participate is another one that every employee in the modern environment is supposed to have (O’Connor, 2017). As identified, there was a point in manager’s office where a heated argument took place. The argument was because Simon was refusing to agree with the boss. At one point, the table was banged by an angry Mr. Smith. The anger was because of the frustration that he was having with the workload and required Simon to tow and ensure that he handled the work as required. Simon had the right to participate in any discussion relating to his post and the fact that Mr. Smith did not offer him this opportunity effectively shows the amount of disrespect that he had for the employee. Employees are supposed to plead their arguments in case they feel that something is not going accordingly. Simon is allowed to sue Mr. Smith and the reason for this is the fact that this type of behavior is not with accordance to the employee law rules.

            The right to refuse unsafe work is another concept to review. Some employers subject their employees to work environments that are unsafe and the consequent of this is having them failing to work for the sake of their health. In the given scenario, Simon had diligently turned down the work and this is because he felt that those working conditions were rather unsafe for him. The work environment at the time is not identified to have presented any direct risks, however, it is also important to note the mental state of the worker. If Simon had agreed to work on the assigned tasks, he would have suffered from a lot of stress and with stress there is a risk to the mental status of the individual.

            Another risk to the health of the person is the kind of work that he had been assigned. Because of the increased workload, Simon was required to work even in departments that he was not familiar with. There are numerous risks that come from working in a place that a person is not familiar with (Rogers, 2016). It is hard to grab a particular concept immediately and there are chances that he would have gone through an accident but this was not a matter that concerned Mr. Smith It is only appropriate for Simon to sue Mr. Smith and reason for this is that being forced to carry out a task is an aspect that can lead to health damages. Employment Law

            The case to review is relating to the United Kingdom against the Legislative Council Bureau. The given case was around the time the United States was carrying out numerous tests and the consequence of this was having lawyers from the two sides engaging in verbal and consequently legal wars relating to the same. The case made the world aware of the tension that was present between the two countries and more specifically the United States and Europe. The various legal precedents assisted in the comprehension of the matter and thus it was possible to note the means through which this could be recovered (Pekkanen, 2018). As time progressed, the M.A Lopes case became a pivotal level to review relating to the issue of equality on the issue of employment law where the government would not take cases that individuals presented in a given environment. The given concept made the employees have power over the employers as they could sure them over the infringement of rights.

            Galvin Daniel is a vocal author and activist who has written numerous legal articles seeking to see to it that labor and employment laws are effectively followed. In one of his articles posted early last year in various platforms, he explained that the current environment has positively changed. Labor unions have become vocal seeking to see to it that employers observe the rights of the employees (Galvin, 2019). It is the right of each employee to forward a matter to the courts if he or she feels oppressed. Having the employment laws printed is essential in ensuring that employers follow what is required.

            For the case involving Mr. Smith and Simon, the company had clearly written down the rules that were if the employee was not comfortable handling an assignment or if it was out of his scope, then he she would be excused. For this particular case, one can note that the employment law requiring following of a contract was not followed. The employee felt that he was being stretched and was uncomfortable. Rather than following or paying attention to the needs of the employee, the employer, Mr. Smith, pushed him even further which was against the rules of the contract. Simon has the right to sue Mr. Smith on all counts.


Galvin, D. J. (2019). From labor law to employment law: The changing politics of workers’           rights. Studies in American Political Development33(1), 50-86.

O’Connor, N. (2017). ‘Interpreting employment legislation through a fundamental rights lens:      What’s the purpose?. European Labour Law Journal8(3), 193-216.

Pekkanen, M. R., Morenilla, M. J., Freeland, J., Baka, M. A., Bonnici, M. G. M., &Butkevych      (2018), M. V. LCB v THIE UNITED KINGDOM.

Rogers, B. (2016). Employment rights in the platform economy: Getting back to basics. Harv. L. &Pol’y Rev.10, 479.

Final Paper

Final Paper


Conventionally, space and place are essential components of understanding social relations because interactions must occur somewhere and the participants must be accommodated. For instance, the author and a reader interact in text media such as a book, article, magazine, and newspaper, among others. However, there are increasing concerns regarding the nature of human relations due to the rise of social media. According to Ellison (875), the internet has been phenomenal in terms of improving communication by overcoming geographical boundaries and immensely increasing the number and nature of people involved at a particular instance. Nonetheless, some people feel that social media has introduced minimal or no changes to the traditional social relations. Notably, to identify the manner in which social media platforms such as Facebook have changed or preserved conventional social relations including its elements such as racism depends with the point of perception. Final Paper

            Most of the existing social media platforms are built to provide an interaction similar to that of real life. However, in some instances, most of the online social networks display shortcomings compared to conventional forms of communication. For instance, twitter has a text limit of one hundred and forty characters; hence, cannot accommodate large messages. On the other hand, conventional media such as a book or a magazine can carry large volumes of texts. However, due to the high connectivity that comes along with the internet, social media texts can reach millions of people within a short duration of time compared to conventional media such as print and television. In this regard, the social media has successfully changed the manner of interactions by limiting the size of the message and increasing the number of people involved at a particular instance. Nonetheless, some of the effects of traditional factors of interaction such as language still have a similar effect on social media as compared to conventional modes of communication. Therefore, online social networks have reshaped human relations, while retaining a number of conventional elements of relationships. Final Paper


A qualitative method was used to conduct this study due to ability of the technique to generate adequate information required to derive relevant conclusions on the topic of research. In this regard, secondary sources of information including lecture materials, articles, books, and videos related to social media, racism, human relations, space, and place were considered in the study. In addition, a well known and used across people of varying demographics, social media platform was chosen to aid the analysis regarding the manner in which technology has reshaped space and race. Using information gathered from secondary sources and primary data from the social as well as the course, a detailed evaluation was conducted that generated a number of conclusions.

Media Description

According to the World Internet Stats, with about seven and half billion users distributed around the globe, Facebook is the most popular social media platform in the world. In addition, the online social network experienced a two hundred and eighty two percent growth over the last seven years (Ellison 877). Therefore, with such kind of penetration, Facebook forms the best social media platform to analyze the impacts of social networks on space and race. There are a number of features, which have made Facebook the largest online social network in the world. For a person to become a Facebook user, he/she must sign up with personal details. Once a User, a person can send friend request to other users, who can respond by accepting or rejecting the request. In addition, a user can post messages on their timeline, which can be viewed by specified people on the platform. For instance, a person can set a post to public status, which means that all of his friend can view the post. Large size of post limit, which is about sixty thousand characters, is another Facebook feature, which has immensely increased its popularity(Protalinski 1). This kind of post limit indicates that a novel, which is about five hundred thousand characters long, can be shared in nine post . Final Paper

            Facebook also allows users to create groups, whereby people can interact adhering to the rules of the set. A Group can be closed, open, or secret; hence, determining the level of interaction within the sets. An open group means that posts and comments as well as members are viewable to anybody online including search engines. A closed Facebook group requires approval of the administrator for one join, while a secret group remains accessible to people with the knowledge of its existence, while new people must be approvedto become members. Apart from the groups, Facebook also facilitates chatting between friends through the messenger. In additions, a user can like posts, photos, video, and comments by pressing the ‘like button’. Also, a Facebook user can respond to post, pictures, and videos, by way of texting a comment and sharing the post to his/her users. With such features alongside others, Facebook tries to mimic real life human social interactions. 


According to De Certeau (3),a place can determine the nature of participants as well as that of the interaction. Additionally, participants can determine the nature of interaction and that of people involved. For instance, in the case of a book, the author and the reader interact in a monologue type of conversation and the number of participants at a particular instance are limited. In addition, if the writer uses a specific language such as French, only readers that can understand the language will be able to interact with the author. Therefore, a place such as Facebook possesses rules, which determine its contents users and the manner of interaction that take place there. 

            Facebooks as a social network creates a large online community for information sharing. As a platform, Facebook possesses rules that define the manner in which people engage on the network. For instance, the platform can delete inflammatory messages, allows users to report abuse by other users, and can respond to such abuses by closing the accounts. In addition, users can create groups, which enhance selective engagement. Therefore, in a similar manner as the conventional media, Facebook can create communities of information. However, due to high penetration, Facebook has highly expanded the space of information sharing among users compared to traditional media.

            Generally, any Facebook user can post anything and according to the ‘view status’ other users can respond to the post by commenting, liking, or disliking. Therefore, some of users can post racist content in terms of photos or text; hence, extend the vice especially when such users have a large following on the platform (Carpi 14). The ability to create groups also indicate that people can create sets of engagement based on race; hence, encourage such behavior. However, supporters of Facebook argue that due to large number of people of varying racial background, most users fear to post racist content, which can highly tarnish their image. In addition, Facebook makes some efforts of deleting inflammatory messages; hence, minimize such activities. On the other hand, in the conventional world, such restrictions are impossible since there exists a limited audience and rules of engagement. In this regard, social media is minimizing racism by enlarging space and restricting content. Final Paper

            Since Facebook is an internet-based platform, it offers a virtual space for interaction to its users as opposed to traditional mass media.On the platform, users can considerably share large sizes of text; hence, function in a similar manner as traditional media. However, as opposed to conventional media, original owners, who cannot conceal their identity; hence, are cautious of the content they share on the platform, generate information. Notably, most of the traditional means of communication such as books and newspapers consist of reported information and can choose to conceal the sources. Therefore, it is easier for racist messages to be shared on traditional media as compared to Facebook.

            Facebook also through the use crowdsourcing resources such as groups can immensely increase efforts against racism (Ellison 880). Users can create groups, which can help people deliberate on the issue and come up with better solutions to the problem. However, critics of Facebook argue that Features such as groups enhance racism since, they reduce the space of interaction by enhancing access restrictions; hence, minimizing the number and categories of people that can engage in crowd sourcing. In addition, conventional media does not possess the ability to customize content according to targeted users; hence, does not promote discrimination based on race. Nonetheless, Facebook has a sharing feature, which can ensure that many people can access information; hence, restrict people from posting racist information. Additionally, with traditional media, it is almost impossible to use crowdsourcing in the interest of reducing racism. Final Paper

            Despite the ability of Facebook ability to minimize racism, the meme phenomenon is in some cases used to promote the vice (Nakamura 4). Meme involves Facebook pages with humorous messages being spread rapidly among users. In some cases, such pages possess racist messages, which can escalate the rate of spreading the behavior. Nonetheless, due to wide penetration of the Facebook, the space of interaction is immensely increased and the number of races involved as well such that these memes are met with huge resistance; hence, show how racism is lowly regarded and discourage the behavior. However, in some case, some people succeed to incite people on racial lines on Facebook but the effect of such actions is minute compared to the ability of the platform to reduce racism. Therefore, the manner in which Facebook affects space and race depends on the point of view.


            Apparently, Facebook as a social media platform increases the space of human interaction by offering a virtual place of information sharing. The literature above clearly shows that Facebook reaches large number of people compared to conventional media. In addition, Facebook mimic some of the traditional methods of communication, while changing the rest. For instance, on Facebook, users can form groups of interaction mostly composed of friends that mimic human life sets of interaction. As a platform, Facebook is a large set of interaction, which is composed of information sharing between friends. Such characteristics of Facebook make the platform transform of fail to change conventional spaces and race. Final Paper

            For instance, the large number of people involved on Facebook compels users to refrain from posting racial messages in the interest of their image. In addition, Facebook can delete inflammatory content; hence, reduce their impact. On the other hand, conventional media does not have a means of regulating content once released; hence whether inflammatory or not, the information must reach its destination. However, the large number of Facebook users means that if racist message can reach a big number of people; hence, have far-reaching adverse effects. Therefore, the impacts of social media to space and place depends with the point of view.Final Paper

Works Cited

Carpio, Genevieve G. “Racial projections: cyberspace, public space, and the digital divide.” Information, Communication & Society (2016): 1-17.

Nakamura, Lisa.Media Book Keywords for American Cultural Studies by Lisa Nakamura. (2015).

Protalinski, Emil. “Facebook Increases Status Update Character Limit to 63,206.” ZDNet, 4 Dec. 2015, www.zdnet.com/article/facebook-increases-status-update-character-limit-to-63206/.

Internet World Stats. “Facebook World Stats and Penetration in the World – Facebook Statistics.” Internet World Stats – Usage and Population Statistics, www.internetworldstats.com/facebook.htm.

De Certeau, Michel. “Spatial stories.” What is architecture (2002): 72-87.

Ellison, Nicole B., Charles Steinfield, and Cliff Lampe. “Connection strategies: Social capital implications of Facebook-enabled communication practices.” New media & society 13.6 (2011): 873-892.

Breakfast Hunt

Breakfast Hunt

One of the ways through breakfast hunt can improve their services is looking for an online platform. The contemporary environment has seen an increase in the number of online platforms through which they can resolve their various health needs. It is also essential to note that the platforms have served effective in the manner that people receive the various goods that they require in the modern world. One of the means through which Breakfast hunting can improve is by ensuring that their online platforms operate effectively and through this, they can manage to not only serve the people in the environments that they live but also accommodate other in different environments in a manner that will serve them and also others in the same measure. (The Old Foodie, 2019).The company has the ability to make numerous changes that can see it improve in the modern world. However, the management of the company is pivotal in ensuring development of the institution. It is also pivotal for the company to ensure that it delivers quality products when it offers the quality products and through this there is the assurance that people in the industry operate effectively and furthermore, they ensure that the quality of products delivered is top notch.

The Old Foodie. (2009). The Breakfast Hunt. Web. Retrieved on 2020 20 February. http://www.theoldfoodie.com/2009/06/hunt-breakfast.html

Chronological Scope

Chronological Scope

            The book reviews the issues that the major subject of the book, BrummettEchohawk went through as he was engaged in the war. According to the reading, he was very passionate about war and as of such; he incorporated some of the talents that he had to ensure that the United States had an upper side had in the war. The book and study begins by going through the family traditions and the importance of this was gaining an understanding of where his attitude towards war had come from. The following sections in the book seek to show how he used his Pawnee experience to address matters relating to the war. The final parts of the book as presented by Kristin focused on his work as an artist. After his contribution in the war, it is essential to identify the fact that he enrolled in a school of arts. Many people including his family were opposed to his enrollment in the schoolstating that he was having a post war conflict. Many People also believed that his experience in the war would not have him concentrating in his studies. However, it is imperative to comprehend the fact that he managed to overcome the assumptions and the mental challenges that he had during the war and earned a place as one of the formidable artists in his century. Chronological Scope

Main Thesis

            The focus of this book is addressing the struggles and accomplishments that BrummettEchohawk had in his life. The character gains recognition as one of the most influential soldiers in the American Army during the war and the consequent of this was he gaining recognition among his fellow soldiers. It is also essential to identify the fact that he approached the aspect of war in a conventional manner where he did not focus on terror and physical violence in achieving his goals. Many of the people that joined the war had the mentality that winning the war required force. However, for this character, he sought to approach this using dialogue where he tried to use his Pawnee culture to convince people of the dangers of war. In general, he was a peacekeeper but once he noted that the opposition did not respect this he went ahead and joined his fellow American soldiers in ensuring that those against the ideals of the United States understood the perspectives of the country. Chronological Scope

            From reviewing the work of Brummett, it is possible for a person to understand that it possible for a person to engage in acts of war for a positive course despite the fact that they might not have the intention to hurt others. However, when circumstances require changes in a person ideology, alterations in the moves that a person engages in are very important. For the character, Brummett made the required changes and it is imperative to note and record the changes that he incorporated to ensure that his squad, the United States Army succeeded in its goals[1]. Moreover, reviewing the manner that he introduced and incorporated his Pawnee culture in the war is essential for it enables people to comprehend that regardless of a person’s background, it is possible for the person to achieve set objectives. Moreover, understanding the ability of the individual to register and gain administration in a contemporary learning institution after the war shows and reveals the fact that war does not have to limit a person to possibilities in the future. Brummett was exceptional in this and this led to him graduating and leading a normal life even after the war. Chronological Scope


            The book offers substantial information on the issues and problems that soldiers went through in the war. A considerable number of Pawnee warriors offered their skills for the American Army. When engaging in the war, it is important to note that Pawnee warriors were in the front-line. Despite the fact that these warriors were reputable for their strength, it is important to note that Brummett identified that this group of soldiers was weak and this was in relation to diseases. The immune systems of these warriors were not used to foreign sorry as compared to what they were used to in the United States (9). These soldiers had adapted to these systems and the consequent of this was finding it hard to survive in regions where they did not comprehend. However, because of the resilience nature of this group of fighters, it was possible for them to overcome the various challenges that they faced. Chronological Scope

            Brummett also identified that the experience that they were going through during the war was not in comparison to what they had gone in military learning institutions[2]. In these learning institutions, they had learned tactics through which they would subdue the enemies and before that attack them without gaining attention. However, in the wars, they had various challenges and the reason for this is the fact there were some people in these armies that had traded secrets with the enemies and consequently had faced the consequence of this form of disappointment and neglect to the soldiers that they foughtwith.

            Another point to review is relating to Brummett’s brother who was inspired by the efforts that the United States was putting to ensure that there was clear definition of its stature in society. The brother believed that he was competent enough to fight in the wars despite the fact that he was not as experienced as his sibling was[3]. It is imperative to identify the fact that regardless of his passion, he was not given the opportunity to participate in the war for he was a great risk that the admirals believed would prove as a risk to the general environment at the time when the United States required the highest experienced soldiers. Youngbull appreciates the fact that Brummett introduces the Echohawk’s Pawnee heritage in comprehension of military intelligence. With a Pawnee attitude, it is possible to handle issues in a non-violent means and only when violence is needed does one take it up. Chronological Scope


            The author has carried out an accurate job in ensuring that he follows through his thesis statement. The fact that it has become possible for the author to ascertain the information that he has provided relating to Brummett is essential for it shows competence and respect to what he has offered the readers as a preview. It is also possible for the readers to comprehend the fact that Kristin is reliable and this is relating to the information that she offers. Moreover, this gives her an avenue to follow and address other matters regardless of the topics provided. Moreover, it enables the readers to understand the nature of the United States military during the war and the different types of characters present at the time.


Youngbull, Kristin M. BrummettEchohawk: Pawnee Thunderbird and Artist. University of   Oklahoma Press, 2015.

[1]Youngbull, Kristin M. BrummettEchohawk: Pawnee Thunderbird and Artist. University of Oklahama(Oklahoma Press, 2015), 28

[2]Youngbull, Kristin M. BrummettEchohawk: Pawnee Thunderbird and Artist. University of Oklahama(Oklahoma Press, 2015), 32

[3]Youngbull, Kristin M. BrummettEchohawk: Pawnee Thunderbird and Artist. University of Oklahama(Oklahoma Press, 2015) 46

BMW Analysis

BMW Analysis

BMW is one of the most formidable companies and this is because of the quality of cars that this car entity manufactures. Almost every year, the company’s development team comes up with new models that are bound to improve the experience of the customers. With such developments, there is the assurance that these cars perform even better. For each of their cars, the institution ensures that it focuses on advancing at least three areas and these ranges from the material that they use to make various parts of the car to the interior design of the machines. The 2019BMW gains recognition as one of the most effective versions of the fleet of models. It is important to review the differences between the 2019 BMW 330 and the 2005 BMW 330 for it offers a reader a detailed account of the engineering changes that have taken place in the manufacture of the automobile. BMW Analysis

The material that was used to make the chassis in the 2005 BMW 330 is carbon steel. When the chassis was made, it was meant to ensure that the car remained intact with minimal movement in case it came into collision with a strong object such as a concrete wall. It is also imperative to note that the chassis was F30 which is used by many other car models. Combined with carbon steel, the chances of lower parts of the car getting damaged lowered. The 2019 BMW 330 is different from the former and this is because the material that was used in the manufacture of the chassis was aluminum alloys and reason for this is the fact that they are lighter (Zane). The importance of the aluminum is that the chassis would manage to bring the rear tires into effect faster in case of sharp corners and this works well with the new G-20 Chassis introduced by the company. BMW Analysis

The engine type that is present in the 2019 BMW 330 model is intercooled and turbocharged DOHC 16-valve inline-4. It is imperative to note that this engine has an aluminum block and head that are effective in increasing the speed of the car during take-off and after taking both a short and a long turn. The engine has direct fuel injection and this is where it is possible for the engine to rejuvenate in the case where the car might run out of gasoline and almost comes to a halt. The characteristic is different from that of the BMW 330 of 2005 provided that it has a 215 horsepower with fourteen-cylinder internal combustion engine indicating that it is less effective and combusts gas slower than the 2019 model (Kiefer et al., 11). The information shows that the 2019 model can combust gas faster and consequently take off at greater speeds. BMW Analysis

BMW 330 of 2005 had the interior composed of one molten plastic and for most of these models; they were made of multiple pieces of the plastic. However, it is imperative to note that there were those versions that came towards the end of production that had a single piece of plastic in the interior dash and in the lower parts of the seat. Something that they had is plastic chairs for all the sitters in the car. For the BMW 330 of the year 2019, thin cardboard pieces, wood and fiberglass are used in the manufacture of the interior parts of the car. This is very different from the original version and the reason for this transformation was to ensure that the cars were lighter and through this could travel at faster speeds (VanderWerp,Dave). It is important to note that something that has been consistent with regard to the interior is the use of leather in all the seats. BMW Analysis

It is also important to review the aspect of transmission with regard to the two different models. For the 2005 model, one can identify the fact that there were two types of transmission present in the car. Given the fact that this was the time when automobile transformation was taking place greatly, the car operated using manual and semi-automatic transmission. This is different from the 2019 mobile. The current model operates using automatic transmission alone and does not have the manual or semi-manual component in its operation. BMW Analysis

The BMW model of the year 2005 weighs a total of 1543 kgs. The weight of the model is different from that of the 2019 model that is of 1390kgs. The disparity in weight is not very big and this is given the amendments that have been made in the two models. The former model weighs more and the reason for this is the fact that the chassis was made of purely of carbon steel. As identified, carbon steel is very heavy as compared to other metals. The product shows the difference between the two given the fact that aluminum that was used in the 2019 model is less heavy thus justifying the underlying factor. Another aspect to comprehend is the fact that the interior of the two vehicles was totally different in such a manner that the former was lighter. BMW Analysis

Optimal driving performance needs an engine that has high amount of smoothness and a very low torque. The powertrain of the 2019 model, one can identify the fact that the engine tech that is used in the car is using injection that is direct and twin-power turbo where the valve control is variable, when propelled with the right amount of energy from the gasoline injected it has the ability to displace 2979 cubic meters of the gas at a power of 225 KW. For the 2005 model, the only difference is with regard to the fact that it did not use the twin turbo and the consequent of this was not having enough amount of gas propelled (Unger et al 599). The consequent of this was having the car travelling at high speeds but burning a lot of gas through the exhaust. BMW Analysis

The fact that the 2019 model is lighter means that it has the ability to pick pace with regard to speed at a higher rate as compared to the manner that the previous 2005 car could. Moreover, the 2019 model has suspensions which offer quality body control and each end of the car also does this. Consequently, the performance will greatly improve. The previous models and more specifically the 2005 version did not have this. It is this rustier to use the old model as compared to the new one BMW Analysis

The 2019 and 2005 BMW 330 models are excellent automobiles. However, they have differences relating to various aspects from the exterior to performance. Other areas where the two cars are different is relating to the interior and the chassis. Choice of the car to use depends on the user preference. BMW Analysis

Works Cited

Kiefer, W .; Klauer, N . Krauss, M .Mährle, W .Schünemann, E .The new inline six-cylinder          gasoline engine from BMW, Part 2: Thermodynamics and functional properties. In: MTZ    65 (2009), No. 12, pp. 1008-1017.

The 2019 BMW 330i is Better, but not a Game changer.”Road and Track, 12 Dec 2018,

            https://www.roadandtrack.com/new-cars/first-drives/a25475896/2019-bmw-330i-first-      drive-review/

Unger, H . Schwarz, C .Schneider, J .Koch, K.-F .Valvetronic – experience from seven years of    large series and a look into the future In: MTZ 69 (2008), No. 7-8, pp. 598-605

VanderWerp,Dave. “Does the rear-drive sport version of the 2019 BMW 330i rekindle the 3’s      Previous driving Magic?.” Car and Driver, 29 AUG 2019,


Zane, William. “Difference Between BMW 330i and 330ci.” It Still Runs,  “Accessed” 05 Dec    2019


The Bellagio Hotel

The Bellagio Hotel


The company to review is Bellagio Hotel and Casino that is located on the Las Vegas strip and, more specifically, Paradise Nevada. The hotel was officially opened in 1998 after two years of construction. The ceremony that launched the hotel was worth 88 million United States dollars. The reason for the vast amount is citing the fact that some of the prominent politicians and business people in the state of Nevada attended it. It is also imperative to review the various developments that have been cited in the hotel. Through the consideration of this, then it is possible to discuss the various changes that the hotel can make and consequently make the various changes necessary.

Property Management System

           From reviewing the information that is present on their site, I identify the fact that this company, just like any other hotel management company in the state of Las Vegas, has a very elaborate network. The best means through which this institution manages its property is through online networking. The company makes sure that the various suppliers that it has been well equipped with gadgets that can access online networks (Bellagio Las Vegas). Through the consideration of this, it is easier for logistic partners to identify the various requirements of their clients. Moreover, it is also possible for the employees to deliver real-time information on their practices and offset any problems that they might be having at the time of transactions.

Cloud Computing

           Cloud computing is fundamental, and this is with the given technological environment that currently exists in the modern world. The company ensures that it stores all private information to a secure cloud, and through this, it is possible to identify the various requirements of the various clients. It is essential to note that through technological advancements, it is possible to resolve some of the logistic needs that Bellagio Hotel has suffered over time. The company also manages to handle distant clients that it has (Bellagio Las Vegas). Owing to the reputation that the institution has, it has received overseas clients, and this has been very advantageous to the institution. Managing logistics between the clients and the suppliers is very important as it ensures that the company develops effectively and also makes gross profits.


           One of the applications that Bellagio Hotel uses is MGM Resorts. The company utilizes this application because many people that visit Las Vegas do not identify the best resorts with reduced prices. The consequence of this is having visitors going to the location, and after realizing the fair prices that it offers, decide to reside in the hotel. The company also bears social networking accounts, and through this, it can update current clients and other potential clients on the services they offer. Moreover, the hotel can notify clients of various changes that take place in the company and industry in general. Twitter is another tool that the company offers. Many people in the modern environment do not take twitter seriously, and the reason for this is the fact that traditionally, the company did not offer business management strategies but used the company for pure entertainment. Instagram is another channel that the company uses, and this is because it can post photographs of the various suites that the company has to offer.

Check-in and Checkout process

           The check-in process is through two different means. For people that reside along the Las Vegas strip, they can access the hotel directly and pay at the entrance. For people that live in distant places, they can visit the company website and pay for their room accommodation.

Room Entry

           Technology that is used in room entry is having a key-card that is provided at the entrance of the hotel. As soon as a person pays for a room in the institution, he or she is provided with a key card that is used at the entrance of the room that has been accommodated.

The Guest Room

           Network conferencing is used in the guest room, where people can associate regardless of their locations. Through this, it is possible to achieve various business objectives that people might have.

Meeting Space

           Meeting places in the hotel are used to ensure that there is continuity of connections between the hotel visitors and other people in the social environment. In these meeting places, people attend with their various gadgets such as laptops and tablets. They can share their diverse views on given projects that they might be discussing.


           The payment method that is used in the hotel is through wire transfer or other conventional means that the administration deems necessary. The determiner of this is the payment avenue that the client or guest might have.

Guest Comments and Feedback

           Clients can comment on their various experiences through the various social media channels that the company offers.

Social Media

           The hotel has a very functional social media page where people review the performance of the hotel based on their experience. The company management is in charge of the institution with the assistance of the Information Technology manager.


           Through an effective review of the hotel, it is possible to note that it has had a serious change relating to technology. The company management has been very pivotal in the management of the hotel. I feel that the company has been very active through the introduction of technology, and through this, various advancements have been noted, and the profit margin has increased relating to other companies in the Las Vegas Strip. 

Works Cited

Bellagio Las Vegas.World Class Resorts.Retrieved on 21 April 2020.Web. 2020.


Case Study

Case Study

One of the advantages that come from incorporating the buy one get one strategy is that it attracts people a lot. People are always keen to get free commodities and when such an offer comes along, they take it up very fast. Another advantage that comes from this on the side of the retailer is that it is possible to free up merchandise very fast as compared to product coupons. At times, a person might have many commodities in his/her shelf in such a manner that they might reach the expiry date without getting a consumer and naturally go to waste. It is imperative to note that using the strategy, one can free up space and manage to get new and fresh products. Case Study

Despite the outlined advantages, it is also possible to review the disadvantages that come from this strategy. One of the problems associated with buy one get one is that the retailer makes huge losses. The amount of money that the retailer had paid to the supplier is not reflected because one of the products is given to the customers free of charge as compared to product coupons (Gordon-Hecker, 2020). The case can extend so much that it might affect the stature of the company by failing to have proper book management. Case Study

Another disadvantage of the strategy is that the sellers might have ill intentions seeking to clear out stock and thus sell even expired commodities under the guise that they are carrying out customer service. Problems that come from this are numerous and this is where people might even get health complications that might not even enable them to work effectively in their respective positions. Coupons impact the extended supply chain in that they make it easier for people without financial ability to get products even at the lowest level with the cheapest prices. By understanding this, it is possible for people to get all the required products at any point in the supply chain. Case Study

References Gordon-Hecker, T., Pittarello, A., Shalvi, S., &Roskes, M. (2020). Buy-one-get-one-free deals      attract more attention than percentage deals. Journal of Business Research111, 128-134.

Business Plan

Business Plan

Executive Summary

The product to incorporate in the learning environment is Digacide that will be a bacteria killing aerosol that when placed in a classroom will manage to kill all germs. The paper will seek to review the importance of this commodity in the given environment. Moreover, there will be a target market summary and a competitor summary in the project. It will also be important to go through a critical review of all the issues that might take place legally with relation to the product. The second part of the paper will tackle the industry analysis section. In the industry analysis section, it is important to identify the fact that there will be a section that pays attention to what needs to be changed in the healthcare environment to better accommodate for these issues. The regulatory and political issues are also focused on in the paper and through comprehension of this, it is possible to handle some of these health issues that might present themselves. Barriers to entering this industry are also vital to think about and address to note the best means to overcome them. Business Plan


            It is important for school environments to practice safe activities for the sake of the students. As time has progressed, it has proven even riskier to have some of these learning environments open and this is because of the ignorance that is portrayed by these schools. Many institutions only have their children disinfecting at times when a serious matter arises. It is essential to identify the factors that revolve about the establishment of a reputable institution caring for the needs of people and thus determining the various strategies that can be incorporated to ensure that their performance is top notch (Pavolini et al., 2018).Going through a product review, company review and industry analysis is important when seeking to understand the product and environment better. Business Plan

Real Value and Estimated Cost

            The aerosol will be important for the assurance of safety of these school-going children. Germs have become common in the modern world and given the fact that the immune systems of these children is very weak, it is always important to ensure that they are well taken care of. The teachers as well will benefit from the product. After noticing how efficient it is, there is hope that they will use them in their homes and even recommend other people to use the same. Consequently, there is the assurance that the environment will become a much better and safer place for all. As per various estimates, it is important to note that the aerosol will go at a very cheap price and this is because it will merely cost an interested party about 20 dollars. Given that the company is new, it is important to set the price low to capture market attention. Business Plan

Target Market and Competitive Analysis

            The target market for the aerosol is the school environment. As identified, many students in the current environment do not get quality lives and this s because they are exposed to germs that make them sick. Some of these children come from well-off families and practice hygiene when home. However, some learning institutions ignore the importance of taking hygiene importantly. It is important for these students to understand the importance of hygiene from an early age and the best way through which this can be achieved is by educating them on the new product. It is also important to go through the competitor analysis. Competition is high from already established brands such as Raid and the reason for this is that these companies have an established client base that makes them more serious in their environment. Moreover, these companies have already come to understand the needs of their customers and thus better suited in the given industry. Business Plan

Marketing Strategies and Legal Constraints

            One marketing strategy that I will incorporate is ensuring that the product is noted through social media. The current environment is one that involves a lot of media presence and as of such, using some of these tools is the most efficient way through which a person can understand the needs of people (Adekola&Sergi, 2016, NA). Mass media through television and traditional media such as newspapers also come in vital in the comprehension of the healthcare field (Bonde, Bossen&Danholt, 2018, 1147). Incorporation of these strategies will ensure general success. Some legal constraints also present themselves and this is where some chemicals present in the product might affect the health of the users. It is important to ensure the company outlines all the components and notifies people of any risk involved. Through comprehension of this, the company will effectively avoid some legal challenges that it might face in the current and near future. Business Plan

Marketing Business Plan and Industry Analysis

            The type of organization to introduce is a single permit company that means that it is not yet publically limited. It will be a family run business where each family member will have their own responsibilities and consequently work to ensure that they satisfy the needs of the consumers. The name of the company is Degrain Chemicals. The company will ensure that it confirms with the various departments on the availability and ethical stature of the nation to ensure that the company operates within I limits. Despite the fact that there will be some challenges, the company will work hard to ensure that it succeeds and all involved parties benefit from the resources put by the company.

            The hours of operation for the company will not be limited and this is because it will use different trading platforms to ensure that all the customers get the products they need. Some of these commodities will be sold online while others will be sold from physical shops that clients can access. The clients served will be mostly school institutions and this is to ensure that the spread of the germs is stopped. However, the scope of the business will widen its net to manage even personal needs where various clients will be served directly. The means through which companies can get the products is through direct cooperation with theadministration and ensure that all these products reach their intended targets in time (Pavolini, 2018, 250). Through comprehension of this there is assurance that this company will scale even higher.Business Plan

            It is also important to go through an industry analysis of where this company is going to be operating. The industry as noted is the aerosol industry and this is a healthcare industry. Ensuring that there is consideration of this is important in any given market. Respect to the people on the ground is essential for it ensures that the product is better respected. The healthcare industry is going through many changes and it is the role of this company to ensure that it understands all that is required with regard to the market (Bonde, Bossen&Danholt, 2018, 1150)  The industry has also seen an increase in the number of toddlers. The children are important for they are the future. It is vital to always ensure that these children receive all that they need (Pavolini, 2018, 247). The company will ensure that it confirms with the various departments on the availability and ethical stature of the nation to ensure that the company operates within I limits. Despite the fact that there will be some challenges, the company will work hard to ensure that it succeeds and all involved parties benefit from the resources put by the company. The company is bound to make changes in the current environment and this will be very special to all the people that are involved presently and in the future. Business Plan


Adekola, A., &Sergi, B. S. (2016). Global business management: A cross-cultural perspective.      Routledge.

Pavolini, E., Kuhlmann, E., Agartan, T. I., Burau, V., Mannion, R., & Speed, E. (2018).    Healthcare governance, professions and populism: is there a relationship? An explorative     comparison of five European countries. Health Policy122(10), 1140-1148.

Bonde, M., Bossen, C., &Danholt, P. (2018). Translating value‐based health care: an experiment into healthcare governance and dialogical accountability. Sociology of health &       illness40(7), 1113-1126.

Pavolini, E., Kuhlmann, E., Agartan, T., Burau, V., Mannion, R., & Speed, E. (2018). Healthcare             governance, professions and populism: is there a relationship? European Journal of            Public Health28(suppl_4), cky213-292.

My personality

My personality

I have really improved my personality since I joined high school. Initially I was not open to ideas from different people but I can confidently state that my connection with people, regardless of their backgrounds has helped me. I have learned the importance of group work where I have solidified what I have learned in class from this. Moreover, I have learned a lot from spending numerous hours associating with various students through group meetings. I have become a better student through being open minded.

            The amount of hours spent in a boarding institution is quite great, In general, changed the way I associated with people. In Muscat, my personal life had my social connections to the school campus and to the people I attended to at a regular basis. Back at my location, I experienced the freedom of assuming or retorting to text posts as and when I pleased. This act of abomination would soon engulf me into an effervesce of self-thought. I only was concerned about my position among my communal circle and would remain fence-sitting while any issues arose among other people of my group. “Why should I mind? My engrossment is about as useful as squashing water.”However, through my research, I was able to determine the underlying facts to this and reviewing the issue is quite pivotal.

            The transition to a boarding school shattered the comforts that came with my personal life. The wall that protected me from having a healthy relationship was erased. Mandatory schooling system required us to share properties, in each other’s subsists, support everybody associated and this is what led to the creation of family development in learning institutions. However not many people comprehend the issue. It is imperative to comprehend that these changes have taken place and further identify the impacts.

            In distinction to a day school, where I was vastly against the system brought about, there was general ignorance of the system brought about. In the boarding institutions, I was often handling issueseven prior to them getting out of management in a situation where the management had the task of interviewing.. The transformation to dormitory lives changed the setting entirely. Offering stories about a person without paying attention to what the individual stated changed because of the stated challenges Okay, everything will fall in place” or a “Don’t cry. Smile a little bit.” Friendship means to do absolutely anything it takes to put a smile on someone’s face, even if it may be temporary.

Besides sharing emotions, school life instituted distributing a lot of palpable things too. Often I found myself using clothes that didn’t belong to me and then maintain my attire on one. Common incidences like that one led us to disregard the concept of ‘self.’ Even thoughdisregarding the concept of self is contained in the Vedanta principles a conceptreviewed in our transcendent class was making sense more than the traditional concepts of the same.

            The beneficial experience school I was chosen had people starting from the sides of the world with various financial establishments. My background school intended to grant culture and not too bad assortment around me and along these lines, conveyed with it people of different capacities, experiences, and weaknesses. I was around soccer players, guitar players, authorities, specialists, and some more. Nature added to my ability to recognize the blemishes and characteristics of others around me. I was continually incorporated by people capable at a particular inclination, along these lines giving a reliable learning opportunity to me. My live-in school offered me a substitute perspective toward learning when in doubt.

            I found that living under a comparative housetop as those better than at me, I can draw inspiration from near to, picking the positive characteristics in every person to over the long haul include the extent that anybody is concerned. For a mind boggling length living in a day school, I for the most part observed the class topper to be someone with an awesome being given capacity at scholastics. Subsequent to moving to an educational encounter school, I decided to watch the penchants for the class topper and change them to benefit myself. It taught me that It doesn’t take charm to top the class.

            From my experience, I have become a better listener and through this, it is possible for me to comprehend what is required of me in the school environment. I can also confidently state that my relationship with people outside school has improved where I have learned to accept my mistakes, comprehend means through which I can handle them and consequently become a more productive member of society. I initially had the challenge of not taking into consideration views of people based on their performance but since I changed this mentality, I have seen personal growth that has also been identified by close associates.

Works Cited

Shernoff, David J., et al. “Student Engagement as a Function of Environmental Complexity in     High School Classrooms.” Learning and Instruction 43 (2016): 52-60.

Data Management Problems

Data Management Problems


            Data management is very important in any given setting and for any given company, this is no different. It is important to note that there are various strategies that are involved with data management. Some of the tools that companies can incorporate is the work break down structure tool. Another important tool is the quality management tool is also important for project managers to determine the type of work that the workers are carrying out. SWOT analysis is also imperative for the company and more specifically for the project manager. The paper seeks to review the use of project management tools for XYZ Company as a sample company to identify the various problems associated with the same. Data Management Problems

Work Break down Structure Tool

The work break down structure is the most effective in the provided business and this is owing to the fact that the specific department that is being handled is the information technology one. As time has progressed, the information technology sector has proven most effective and the reason for this is that many people in the current world use the internet for online shopping and gathering information on various commodities that they might need in their lives. Through the use of the software such as Yellow Moon and Red Sky, it has been possible to resolve the various issues that are present and this is an outstanding problem, the work break down structure has the ability to identify the various roles that the people in the Information Technology department have to handle. Data Management Problems

The Information Technology problem that the institution faces in initiation is a major aspect of the work break down structure in the business environment. The problem is where the project manager has the responsibility of ensuring that people that are assigned the task identify their various roles. This part of the work breakdown structure is important for it is possible for the project manager to note the various errors that a person might have and thus deal with the people that are responsible for a particular task (Adams, 2010). The Business development case is another problematic and resolved aspect that is very pivotal in the institution. This phase is very important and the reason for this is that it enables the manager to improve on areas that the various subjects are working on. It is essential for a project manager to familiarize himself with the project tasks and this is because when it gets to the business development phase, he or she can effectively coordinate what is going on in the given environment. Consequently, there is general development in the task at hand. Data Management Problems

Many companies in the modern environment do not have an effective IT program. Information development is an indispensable component of this exertion. Recognizing and coordinating quicker, increasingly gritty bits of knowledge into improvement program arranging procedures can prompt better-focused on reactions and progressively effective asset distribution. Information advancement is likewise part of arriving at the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Successful data gathering, investigation, and checking can assist policymakers with coursing right projects and arrangements all the more rapidly, prompting cost efficiencies and more prominent profits for speculations, just as engage networks at last accomplishing the objectives. Data Management Problems

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development defines goal-oriented worldwide objectives, requesting extraordinary activities and endeavors over numerous interconnected social, financial and natural issues. Science, innovation and development (STI) must assume a focal job in the accomplishment of these objectives. The procedure of innovative demolition started by mechanical advancement can change economies and improve expectations for everyday comforts, by expanding efficiency, lessening generation expenses and costs, and raising genuine wages. Outfitting outskirts advancements – joined with activity to address constant holes among created and creating nations in access and utilization of existing advances, and to create advancements (counting non-mechanical and new types of social development) – could be transformative in accomplishing the Sustainable Development Goals and delivering progressively prosperous, reasonable, solid and comprehensive social orders. Data Management Problems

A major problem that is easily resolved is SDG as identified the sustainable development goals. They offer the possibility of arrangements and open doors for maintainable advancement that are better, less expensive, quicker, adaptable and simple to utilize. The degree of the formative effect of innovative advances has just been found in the transformative impacts of data and correspondence advances (ICTs) in some low-pay economies, while the possibility to expand the ecological maintainability of improvement is obvious in ongoing advances in sustainable power source. In any case, new advances take steps to outpace the capacity of social orders and policymakers to adjust to the progressions they make, offering ascend to boundless nervousness and irresoluteness or antagonistic vibe toward some innovative advances. Data Management Problems

Backing for national factual frameworks upgraded data creation more than it advanced in-nation data sharing and use. The World Bank impacted a few nations to share data and microdata openly and worked with accomplices to improve microdata recording and metadata advancement. Be that as it may, a few nations won’t share data for political reasons, quality concerns, or a hesitance to lose an income source. The World Bank has once in a while raised data sharing issues at elevated amounts of approach exchange, yet it needs to utilize its influence completely in customer nations that are hesitant to share data straightforwardly. The World Bank could improve to urge governments to utilize data, despite the fact that their definitive use isn’t really inside the World Bank’s control. Shortcomings in advancing data use have been a noteworthy issue for as far back as 10–15 years, yet endeavors here are dispersed. Just 27 of the 201 ventures inspected for this assessment bolstered exercises to construct data use limit. Data Management Problems

Another problem plaguing the environment at the time is the lack of trust in most of the international organizations. The World Bank has a settled way to deal with structure the limit of data makers, however it has not yet figured an applied model for evaluating client limit. It could advance upgraded data use, for instance, by understanding the various types of data clients and their needs and inspirations, and by including both government and nongovernment data clients in the plan of its activities. The following stage is to move in the direction of a client focused data culture, comprehended as correspondence between the offices that produce, offer, and use data. Low data education and frail research networks are requirements in less fortunate nations, yet individuals met in numerous nations told the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) that they need to know how their district, city, or network is doing with respect to others in their nation. Chiefs in focal and nearby governments need this data to set needs and propel activity. The client focused data culture will take a long time to grow, yet by working with a wide menu of customers, the World Bank can sustain a biological system of data use Data Management Problems


An aspect that should be identified in project management is the communication aspect. This part of the work break down structure is very important and the reason for this is that the manager has the ability to reach out to the various people that are involved with the particular task. In project management, it is vital to note that communication happens through various means. There is upward communication and this is where the various team members correspond with the project manager to get information to the project manager (Albertijin, Bessler&Drobetz, 2011). Some of the information that the members of the team associated with this company might have to deliver to the manager is the shortage of internet cables and the result of this is having the manager seeking financial assistance from the various stakeholders that the company has. Stakeholders are very important for the company and the reason for this is that they invest a lot of money for the various projects that the company has to handle. Owing to this, the managers have no choice but to provide what is needed in the institution. There is also the fact that some of the team members might complain to the manager because of the incompetence of some of the team players where the manager ought to act on this information for the effectiveness of the project and the satisfaction of the client (Conrow, 2018).

Downward communication is another vital aspect to note and the reason for this is that it is possible for the project manager to deliver information to the various project team members. For this company, some of the information that the project manager delivers to the clients is relating to some of the people that are supposed to be off from the project (Dale, 2019). The reason for some of these conclusions is the fact that the project manager might get wind of some of the failures associated or mistreatment associated with the project. Through this, the project manager has the ability to resolve some of these problems and effectively lead to the success of the project.

Quality Standard Management Tool

Another tool that I would recommend is the quality standard management tool. The importance for this tool is that it will enable the manager to schedule his or her data effectively. The tool has been in use for quite some time and through this tool, it is possible to resolve some of the problems that a project might have (Chong, 2016). The project manager effectively analyzes the problems that are associated with a given project regardless of the progress taken in the project and can correct errors well.

SWOT Analysis Tool

It is essential to note that the SWOT analysis tool is essential for capturing the important data relating to the company XYZ. From the NVP analysis for a virtual company such as the one identified above, it is possible to note that there was PV Out of $100,000 and a PV in of $100,000. Moreover, the company shows proficiency putting a record $63636 and $41322 into the business and always recording profit of $100,000.The fact the institution also recorded a net value of $4,958 shows that it was still competent in the environment. Moreover, one can note that the Red Sky software was very effective and assisted the company over the two years. The figures below support this:

Red skyYearCash InPV inCash OutPV Out
 000 $ 100,000.00 $   100,000.00
 1 $     70,000 $      63,636 $              –   $                 –  
 2 $     50,000 $      41,322 $              –   $                 –  
Net present value $                                                     4,958.68

The IRR rate is another one to go through and the reason for this is that it determines the current financial state of a company. For the company, it is possible for one to identify the fact that the amount did not change unlike the NVP. The amount remained $150,000 regardless of changes in the industry and consequently has suffered a lot to regain its original structure. It is vital to note that the project manager employed in the Information Technology department is supposed to work effectively and thus ensure that the company has a positive IRR rate. Given the fact that PV in was a total of $152,066over the two years and the PV out was 150,000 records negative figures and this shows that the yellow software did not perform effectively. Through consideration of this, it is possible for the company to even gather more clients. The IRR rate represents a weakness according to the SWOT analysis tool. However, it is possible for the company to overcome this problem effectively through project management.

YellowYearCash InPV inCash OutPV Out
 1$90,000$ 81,81800
 2$85,000$ 70,24800
   $152,066 $150,000

Another issue to review relating to the SWOT analysis tool for XYZ is the possibility for success that is also identified as opportunity. Given the fact that the company is currently focusing more on technology is a positive thing and the reason for this is that it will lead to more clients seeking their services. Moreover, it is possible for the employees to work remotely with minimal coordination from their various locations. For example, during a lockdown season regardless of the cause, the workers can work effectively, deliver quality work and have the employers and the clients happy at the same time (George & Lisa, 2015). A threat that might come for the company is relating to new competition that might have better quality products. The project manager should ensure that the workers deliver quality work and the only means through this can be achieved is through proper coordination and strictness.


After going through the various provided tools, it is possible to note that the XYZ Company can make developments not only in the information technology sector, but other aspects of the company. The SWOT tool is the most important and the reason for this is that it enables a project manager to note the strengths of the institution and maximize on this. The weaknesses enable the person to identify where he or she ought to correct.


Adams, R. (2010). Change Management,Journal of Environmental Psychology. 8 (73), 467-481.

Albertijin, S., Bessler, W &Drobetz, W. (2011). Financing Operations: A Data-Management         Perspective: Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 23 (4) 70-82.

Chong, L. (2016). Global Competitive Strategy. London: Oxford University Press.

Conrow, E. (2018). Effective Change Management. London: Oxford University Press.

Dale, E. (2019). Management: Theory and Practice. New York: McGrawl Hill Publishers.

George, A., & Lisa, M. (2015). An Analysis of Change Assessment Techniques. International       Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 34(5), 397 – 413.