Verbal approach

Verbal approach

There are different means that an individual can alter their verbal approach in a conversation. One of the best means is lowering the tone. In case a person gets into an argument, it is essential for him or her to tone-down and consequently enable the person on the other end of the conversation to understand the message. Reducing or lowering the tone is important. An added advantage that comes from this voice alteration is that it is possible for the person to listen better. In any given conversation, it is important to listen and the reason for this is that a person can gain the logic of the other party.

Nonverbal communication is another aspect to review. One can change their approach to a conversation by reducing facial expressions. In a case where a heated conversation brings about drama, it is important to understand that facial expressions can even result to fights (Miller, 2017). By managing facial expressions, one can avoid some of these problems and the consequence of this is having a more conventional conversation with the other person. 

There are different means that an individual can alter their verbal approach in a conversation. One of the best means is lowering the tone. In case a person gets into an argument, it is essential for him or her to tone-down and consequently enable the person on the other end of the conversation to understand the message. Reducing or lowering the tone is important. An added advantage that comes from this voice alteration is that it is possible for the person to listen better. In any given conversation, it is important to listen and the reason for this is that a person can gain the logic of the other party.

Nonverbal communication is another aspect to review. One can change their approach to a conversation by reducing facial expressions. In a case where a heated conversation brings about drama, it is important to understand that facial expressions can even result to fights (Miller, 2017). By managing facial expressions, one can avoid some of these problems and the consequence of this is having a more conventional conversation with the other person. 

Academic Integrity

Academic Integrity     

            Academic integrity receives a great deal of attention in institutions of higher education. Universities and colleges provide specific honor codes or have administrative units to promote good behaviors and resolve dishonesty allegations. Students, faculty, and staff have stakes in maintaining high levels of academic integrity to ensure their degrees’ value and preserve respect for their institutions. Often, these efforts result in disparate local dialogs and various approaches to create and maintain cultures of integrity. Despite this, academic integrity receives relatively little attention in the academic literature. Several underlying reasons may exist. First, people generally do not want to reveal dishonest actions and this makes research difficult. Second, students come from a variety of backgrounds and cultural settings with different perspectives on academic integrity; some from high school environments with differing views on academic integrity. This context has resulted in the growth of information services and software products designed to structure and enable academic integrity activities and compliance. However, taken by themselves, these services provide only a partial solution. The current special issue is set against this dynamic backdrop and seeks to bring necessary discussions into the open, particularly for those teaching and researching in areas related to information systems. Our special issue offers a venue where research and practice come together in the voices of our contributors. Specifically, our articles include perspectives of academic integrity in online courses; using reflective methods to reduce plagiarism; giving voice to values as a means of promoting ethical actions; and general perspectives on a large-scale academic integrity program.

Many researchers have come to the realization that most of their business can succeed or fail depending on their incorporation of technology. Some other companies have faced the adverse effects of socio-cultural issues that have had a great impact on their lives. The modern world is one that is faced with numerous challenges and technology has come in to offset some of these imbalances. However, it is essential to note that in the same measure that technology has impacted businesses in a positive light is the same manner that these institutions have identified weaknesses coming from the same advent. There are different parts of the marketing mix that technology and socio-cultural aspects affect the modern environment

            One of the ways through which technology has had an impact on learning and markets in the contemporary environment is through the introduction of big data. The current environment has seen an introduction of numerous ways through which companies and sales representatives can collect data. Data collection is important for different types of companies and reason for this is the more information a marketer has on his or her marketing, the better positioned he or she is in to sell a commodity. A study has shown that about 44 percent of all marketers in the modern environment rely on data to gain insight on the product that they are involved with. Moreover, big data improves aspects related to responsiveness (Erevelles at al., 2016, 898).

            Regardless of the environment where a person might be operating in, it is essential to identify the fact that the response from the client is the basis of quality performance. When a company gathers data relating to the effectiveness of their products, the better positioned it is to improve its marketing criteria. Some companies might push too far seeking to sell its products and consequently have a negative effect on the customers. For a company that relies on big data, it is possible for it to comprehend the mistakes that it makes when marketing and the consequent of this is it identifying whether it should proceed with the student strategies that it had or it has to make a complete overhaul of its marketing strategies (Fan, Lau and Zhao, 2015, 30). Big data has influenced analysis if the market where it is possible to gain information from suppliers regarding speculations on changes in the marketing environment and consequently prepare in case of any changes needed in the environment.

            A person might post regarding the impending changes in the economy and have the retailers identifying whether to increase or increase prices of commodities in the environment. For companies that use big data it is an advantage for them and this is because they are found prepared when the wave of changes takes place in the business environment (Sundsøy et al., 2014, 371). Big data has had a great advantage on the marketing world and this is for the sake of the marketers and the market environment in general. However, the same big data has a negative effect on the environment and this is where some companies might use information that they gather to initiate unconventional business practices and create unhealthy business activities (Licsandruand Cui, 2018, 335).

            Artificial intelligence has been introduced in the current environment and this is where it has been used to promote marketing. It is essential to note that various cultures in the world and this is mostly in developing countries such as those in Africa and others in Asia such as India do not easily let go of their culture. Despite the efforts that have been put by the west to try and sell the concept of technology to these people, the recipient still feels as if they are being taken advantage of by these countries (Strong, 2017). Some developed countries such as Japan and China still hold on to their ancestry and ensure that they engage in activities that their ancestors did. Artificial intelligence is treated negatively in most of these countries and this is where the members hold on to their socio-cultural beliefs.

References

Strong, A. I. (2016). Applications of artificial intelligence & associated technologies. Science        [ETEBMS-2016]5(6).

Walczak, S. (2019). Artificial neural networks. In Advanced Methodologies and Technologies in   Artificial Intelligence, Computer Simulation, and Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 40-        53). IGI Global.

Ong, H. T. (2018). The applications of expert system among the top corporations and its   perceived advantages and disadvantages. Review of Integrative Business and Economics          Research7, 57-66.

Teng, X. (2019, April). Discussion About Artificial Intelligence’s Advantages and             Disadvantages Compete with Natural Intelligence. In Journal of Physics: Conference            Series (Vol. 1187, No. 3, p. 032083). IOP Publishing.

Zor, K., Timur, O., &Teke, A. (2017, June). A state-of-the-art review of artificial intelligence        techniques for short-term electric load forecasting. In 2017 6th International Youth            Conference on Energy (IYCE) (pp. 1-7). IEEE.

Paschek, D., Mocan, A., Dufour, C. M., &Draghici, A. (2017, December). Organizational             knowledge management with Big Data. The foundation of using artificial intelligence.             In Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education (Vol. 3, No. 1, pp.       301-308). De Gruyter Open.

Dimitrieska, S., Stankovska, A., &Efremova, T. (2018). The Fourth Industrial Revolution             €“AdvantagesAnd Disadvantages. Economics and Management14(2), 182-187.

Khalid, K., Mohamed, A., Mohamed, R., &Shareef, H. (2018). Performance Comparison of         Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Non-intrusive Electrical Load Monitoring. Bulletin       of Electrical Engineering and Informatics7(2), 143-152.

Assessing Assessment

Assessing Assessment

Introduction

Assessment for Learning (AfL) is a concept that highlights the importance of feedback in the learning process and places feedback at the centre to boost both the learners’ classroom experience and teacher-pupil relationship. AfL is generally about teachers and students gathering information by observing, listening, questioning, discussing and reviewing students work and implementing collected information in a way that will motivate them to take necessary action to increase their performance (Sadler 1989; Sadler 1998). Assessing Assessment

This case study was carried out to see how low ability and high ability students differentiate in the types of misconceptions they develop using AfL strategies (hot seat and classroom s) in a classroom setting. The case study was conducted using a range of variables and this included low ability pupils and the corresponding high ability year 7. The other variable was the average performing students in the given institution. It was done in a secondary school classroom setting in School X. School X is a Catholic school with a higher than average English as an additional language and pupil premium population. The case study focuses on misconceptions in lessons, and due to the different backgrounds of the students, this may influence the ideas the students have before lessons and how they perceive information. The researcher played the role of an observer and a teacher to gather information on both strategies. Teachers were also interviewed. Assessing Assessment

Based on the hot seat activity, students in the low ability class tend to develop misconceptions based on contextual experiences while high ability students’ misconceptions were more due to lack of information or misinformation. The researcher was able to receive more and more detailed feedback thoughts behind misconceptions during the hot seat. However, he found this activity ineffective in addressing misconceptions. This may be because the hot seat is a high energy activity that reduces students’ attention when addressing misconceptions. Surprisingly, the classroom strategy had the opposite effect. The researcher received less detailed feedback (True or false), but the misunderstandings and missed information could be addressed better using alternative tactics introduced in the setting. The students were engaged in both giving feedback and correcting mistakes during the classroom activity. There is a difference in the type of misconceptions that high and low ability students tend to have which highlights the need for differentiation techniques for learning. Assessing Assessment

Background

The two main types of assessments readily studied, including ‘Assessment of Learning’ (AoL) and ‘Assessment for Learning’ (AfL). Many educators have found it challenging to underline the main distinction between both assessments (Dixon & Williams, 2001). (Chappius and Chappius, 2008) state that it is associated with the assessment’s purpose and the use of established results. The goal of AoL is to give a documented summary/report of students’ learning at the end of an instructional unit, to parents, the students, other educators, or outside groups. (Earl, 2006, p. 55).AoL involves measuring student-learning with a grading system, however, in AfL teachers, provide descriptive feedback and instructional corrections to students, during learning (McMillan, 2007). AfL involves teachers using principles to include students in day-to-day assessments and informal-classroom practices to facilitate learning and boost student-achievements (Chappius and Stiggins, 2002; Popham, 2006). Unlike AOL, AfL does not use evaluation for assessments for accountability or certification. Assessing Assessment

However, for teachers to make AfL beneficial students, they must rely on more than just teaching to influence students to increase their understanding effectively. AfL is also based on improved teacher-pupil communication, which is necessary for AfL to direct pupils on learning objectives, targets and goals (Wren and Cotton, 2008). Likewise, teachers need to be able to differentiate in their lessons for different students because not all students learn at the same pace in a fixed period-of-time (Chappius and Stiggins, 2002; Stiggins and Chappius, 2008). (Black and William, 1998)highlights various assessment impediments practices. These include “overemphasising grades rather than recognising student problems and addressing them to decide learning needs”, “stressing the quantity-of-work and presentation over quality-of-work”, “using assessment feedback to compare students, which facilitates the idea of competition”. This increases bad learning habits in students, where they look for ways to get the best results, rather than learning to understand. Moreover, students develop selfdefeating attitudes by believing that their low-performance and difficulties suggest that they are incapable of success (Wren and Cotton, 2008). Assessing Assessment

The main interventions/strategies of AfL are ‘questioning’, ‘feedback through marking’, ‘peer- and self-assessment’, ‘formative use of summative tests’, and ‘sharing success criteria with learners’ (Taras, 2010). Clarke (2001), and William and Thompson (2007), clearly defined the strategies of formative assessment into teacher-focused strategies. They include “clarifying learning intentions and success criteria”, “engineering effective classroom discussions and other learning tasks that produce evidence of student-understanding” and “providing feedback that moves learners forward”. Student-focused strategies include “activating students as instructional resources for one another” and “activating students as the owners of their learning”. This stresses the importance of ‘self-reflection’ for students to become confident and self-directed learners. (Davies, 2000; Natriello1987; Sadler 1989; Sadler 1998).It also emphasizes the importance of teachers adapting their teaching methods to meet the needs of each student by giving descriptive, informative feedback to improve learning rather than ‘testing’ students and giving judgmental feedback. Assessing Assessment

Sadler (1983, p. 63), describes the three steps of formative-feedback-look: “attention to goals”, “developing strategies to achieve them”, and “monitoring the discrepancies between actual and desired performance”. The latter describes the aim of this study, to observe the misconceptions of learning between students and how AfL strategies influence their learning. Students get a sense of responsibility towards their learning by setting their learning goals and gradually improving their performance (Sadler, 1983; Sadler, 1989; Gipps, 1994). Assessing Assessment

Contrarily, Black and William (1998b), suggests that the introduction of formative assessment is not very straightforward and “there is no fast solution to generate a prompt reward’ (Black and William, 1998b; p. 15). This is an issue because educators prefer to separate both assessment types because of the negative effects associated with AoL(Black, et al., 2004). Likewise, historically, education has focused more on summative assessment (Dixon and Williams, 2001; Andersson and Palm, 2017). However, an effective way would be to use AoL and AfL in unison. Whereby AoL can help teachers and students focus on the specific learners’ needs; and AoL can help teachers to successfully grade students to ascertain how useful their guidance has been and the efficiency of self-appraisal of the student. Thus, AoL can also have positive effects (Black, 1998). Assessing Assessment

However, it is essential to note that the mentioned-above strategies have the power to boost student-performance by incorporating teachers, peers, and learners. Wiliam and Thompson (2008) suggested a “Five Strategies” formal assessment framework to integrate all strategies for further improvements in the classroom. The strategies are clarifying and distributingeducational intentions and criteria for triumph, engineering operative classroom deliberations, questions and erudition tasks, response that moves students forward, personal-assessment and aristocrat assessment However, Vingsle (2011) suggests that this could be a challenging, complex practice, and there are few empirical-evidences available to support this notion. Assessing Assessment

In this study, the AfL practices are used to assess misconceptions in student-learning are classroom  and hot-seat questioning. These techniques are useful in generating discussions and interactions between students, i.e. facilitating ‘peer- and group-assessment’, whilst improving students’ self-esteem towards learning. (Crider, 2004; Megowan-Romanowicz, 2006). Assessing Assessment

Research Design

School X is a Catholic school with a higher than average English as an additional language and pupil premium population. This is reflective in the lower ability class of twenty-six students with thirteen pupil premium students, five students who speak English as an additional language and three students with special educational needs, including a deaf child in the lower ability lesson. The high ability class had 30 students with five pupil premium and one student with special educational needs. This study focuses on types of misconceptions in lessons that may influence the ideas the students have prior to lessons and how they perceive information using AfL. The researcher chose these classes because he had a great relationship with these students and studies have shown that good teacher-student relationships work better for such case studies (Black and Wiliam 1998; Saddler, 1989; Sadler 1989). Case studies are significant because they are helpful in generation of new ideas. The focus of this study was to explore the type of misconceptions low ability students and high ability students had in response to the implementation of the hot seat. The study focused on year sevens as they just transitioned into secondary school and could offer more time for the researcher to explore misconceptions better. Classroom s were further used to address the misconceptions in low ability lessons to see how these strategies aid those with low ability improve their learning problem and boosts performance. Ethical consent was obtained from the school prior to the onset of the study. The consent form is present in Appendix 1. Assessing Assessment

The school ethos mandates frequent self and peer assessment of pupils in every lesson. The science department had implemented a mid-topic marking test that allowed teachers to leave feedback on literacy and give students an idea of their current grade against target grades. Teachers felt this method of assessment worked better for reflective eager students who took control of their learning rather than students who are less inclined to reflect. Due to the high percentage of pupil premium students in the lesson, the case study needed to gain the perspective of both teachers and the students. Evidence shows that children from disadvantaged backgrounds face extra challenges in reaching their potential at school and often do not perform as well as their peers (www.gov.uk/government/publications/pupilpremium/pupil-premium). The relevance of this to the case study is that it is student directed and consequently can operate independently without other forces. Assessing Assessment

The first strategy used was the hot seat questioning approach that involves rapid tough questions that require direct answers. It was done during a biology lesson about the seven life processes, animal and plant cells structure and organelles. The seven life processes are usually taught in primary school, and the scaffolding of new information may bring about misconceptions. There are many new structural parts with functions to learn, with lots of new languages that students may not encounter in their day-today which may confuse students. To make sure students had the right information, the hot seat was used as a plenary. This method required a student to sit on a ‘hot seat’ in top of the classroom, while one word on the topic is written on the board. Then, students give the student in the hot seat hints and clues about the word to find the random word written on the board. The student in the hot seat was also able to ask questions to help them with explanations. This strategy was observed in a lesson. This allowed the researcher to keenly observe the misconceptions students had without personal bias on how students perceive what they’ve just been taught and this was done by spending time with the students in question to understand their various strategies and approaches. Assessing Assessment

The second AfL strategy used is classroom assessment. It was done in a lesson about the Black Death. It was used in a ‘fact or fiction’ plenary to differentiate between the wrong ideas about causes and cures people had in the 14th century during the Black Death. Students were given classroom s and markers. The students worked in pairs to think and share ideas before deciding if the information was fact or fiction. This strategy was chosen because the students didn’t respond well to written assessment. Due to the high percentage of students with special education needs and English as an additional language, when writing the students responded better to short, concise responses rather than long broad ideas. The students found it easier to explain their ideas rather than writing it down verbally. The students worked in groups rather than alone, so the researcher could listen to conversations between peers, and the questions would be less intimidating. Through this I was able to learn and also teach by submitting different ideas. Assessing Assessment

It was hoped that these activities would address the misconception issues stressed in the literature review. The hot seat questioning method was chosen was to assess student dialogue to differentiate types of misconceptions. The use of classroom s meant that the teacher could use common misconceptions to see if they align with student ideas.

Analysis, Interpretation and Discussion:

During the hot-seat method, students were very engaged as theywere very eager and excited to give information they knew about the word on the board. At first glance, it seems only the student in the hot seat lacked information, but through hints given by other students, it was clear that the other students had many misconceptions, which was could be addressed immediately. An advantage of the method involves building the character of students as they were are all encouraged to participate actively; thus, building a better learning environment as they can feed on each other’s answers and ideas and collectively come up with ideas. This builds relationships between students (Ashton-Hay, 2005; Billikova and Kissova, 2013). This is of great benefit to both the teacher and the student in this study. It helps quickly identify the misconceptions of the students. The very nature of hot seat allows for students to give their versions of how each word materialises to them so they can explain this to the student on the hot seat. These are words used, and the clues are given by the students.

 High AbilityLow Ability
RespirationThere are 11 letters, and It is how we breathe, It happens in the mitochondria,It rhymes with aspiration. It is one of the seven life processes. It starts with R. It is how we breathe
DNAIt controls the cell. It is in the nucleus. It contains genes,It controls the cell. It is in the nucleus, Its what makes us different, It tells the cells what to do, Its what they use in a crime scene to find the killer
SynthesisPlants do this to make food. It has nine letters. It is what is used to make protein, Its in the ribosomeIt has nine letters. It starts with S, Protein
MitochondriaIts the powerhouse of the cell, It’s smaller than the nucleus, It starts with M,There are lots of it in the stomach, Its the powerhouse of the cell, It’s smaller than the nucleus, It starts with M, there are squiggly lines in the centre
RibosomeThere are eight letters, It is used for protein synthesisIt looks like the mitochondria without squiggly lines. There is lots of it in chicken. There are eight letters. It starts with R

This highlights the importance of contextual learning with low ability students. The ideas the students had, materialized from contextual examples the teacher had given to help them understand the lesson. Students were better able to retain contextual rather than verbal and written information. The hot-seat method helps to highlight the type of misconceptions different students have on this topic and helps to highlight differentiation techniques, which could be used to boost performance. The hot seat helped me do this by enabling me to think further given the complexity of questions. The technique also provides the teacher with various entry points to the students’ thinking. This allows the teacher to address gaps in students’ understanding by giving constructive feedback after receiving student responses during whole-class discussions. This supports the notion of the literature review and past studies, which suggests that AfL should include discussion activities that improve self-esteem, and targets, and ultimately to boost performance (Sadler, 1983; Crider, 2004; Wiliam and Thompson, 2008). However, one drawback of this method is that students also gave clues from things that did not show any learning impact such as, the number of letters the word had or words that sounded like the word written on the board. The method needed more scarffolding.

The classroom technique was used after the hot seat showed contextual misconceptions in lower ability lessons. The hot seat method complemented the classroom technique. Students were in pairs and were asked if the following statement about the Black Death were true or false:

A large cohort of the students answered true to this question. This could be because they did not read the statement completely and this was the only reason for this a identified from the study. The benefit of using true or false was that it helped in deciphering the misconceptions class had easily. However, in scenarios where the majority of the class had an incorrect answer, it is difficult to pinpoint the origin of the misconception immediately. As such, this technique helps to make teachers more aware of whether their teaching methods are improving the understanding of students or not and stresses the importance of teacher-student communication.

Statement: “the Black Death spread by traders in their trade routes.”

In response, many said true, but a couple of pairs said false. The likely reasons for the misconceptions are that they might have assumed that the teacher asked how the disease was transmitted between patients. However, this cannot be very certain. The misconception was that the doctor identifies the specific patient problem.

Classroom ing can be a retrieval-based learning strategy, which involves engaging students in the active recollection of target information and collective problem-solving (DeHaan, 2005). A benefit of this method is that it sparked peer-to-peer discussions, which allowed students to a co-construct understanding of the question and topic (Duschl, 2008; MegowanRomanowicz, 2006). Likewise, the method also helped the teacher to reinforce student learning and monitor the students understanding and address any student misconceptions while correcting errors (Megowan-Romanowicz, 2006).

Nevertheless, in general, a limitation of this study is that the researcher was not able to confirm that these AfL techniques are long-standing. The study managed to assess and address misconceptions in the classroom but did not follow up to confirm contextual misconceptions did not arise again. Likewise, no results from a pupil’s perspective were gathered to determine individual areas of concerns for students. Pupils agreed they preferred the hot seat, but they learnt more from classroom s. The study also focused on two classes and pupils of the same age, so the results are very specific. Likewise, only one subject was covered. Chemistry teachers in this school did not find the same issue with contextual misconceptions in low ability versus high ability students (Sadler, 1983; Crider, 2004; Wiliam and Thompson, 2008). As such, a future study would involve testing all the students in secondary school and more classes – to test the effectiveness of formative assessments implemented and students understanding.

Conclusion

The observations in this study support the views of Black and William, (1998), which states that formative assessment involves providing feedback to modify and adapt teaching methods to meet student needs. Students became more engaged as the study went on. This suggests that this method helps to boost self-confidence in expressing their ideas and decisions concerning their learning. It also encourages children to be more creative and to widen their imagination; which occurred as students gave answers and creative clues to the word even though they were not related. Likewise, it boosts co-operative learning between students, as they can listen to the clues others had given and find ways to express their ideas better. This was additionally increasing their communication skills with one another, thus facilitating peer- and group-assessment. (Puspitarini, Trisnantasari and Sriwulandari, 2017).

The hot-seat method helped to decipher the types of misconceptions students could have. Low ability students had more contextual misconceptions than high ability students during this case study. Further, in my practice, I will implement different feedback techniques to get different information from students. Classroom ing was also very efficient as it gave time for teacher feedback. The two techniques in this study covered teacher observations, class discussions and question-and-answer AfL techniques. Hence, for lower ability students, more classroom AfL activities, that facilitate discussion can reinforce long-term memory learning and improve performance (Megowan-Romanowicz, 2006). I will use AfL techniques to induce a stress free classroom by not focusing on one style of assessment that causes students to confuse learning with competition in the classroom but learns for deep understanding. Although AfL is important and effective in boosting student achievement, research also suggests that AoL can be incorporated to assess and grade students from time-to-time, to supply feedback. Likewise, AfL would be used to correct errors, direct students to key areas of focus in their learning and to provide the best plan to achieve learning targets, through self-assessment. As such, after this study includes both types of assessment synergistically to boost student self-esteem and improve performance of the researcher

Large Reclining Nude

Large Reclining Nude

A notable painting created by Henri Matisse is “Large Reclining Nude” that is also referred to as Pink Nude is located Baltimore Museum of Art. The piece of art was created in the year 1935. The medium that was used in the creation of the paper was oil on Canvas. The medium is the most effective means through which an artist can deliver quality work that is highly recommended in the contemporary environment. Going through the painting and carefully analyzing it is essential in better comprehension of the work of art and the general field of knack created by Henri enables a person to note the character and artistry of Henri.

The white grid lines are effectively represented in the painting and these show the background of the painting. It is possible to identify the painting well from this background as it enables a person to see the lady well (Kirkman, 2016). There is a love heart shape that is present on the top of the painting and this seeks to show the aspect of romance from the painting. A person can comprehend that this is not only a painting of a nude woman but also a representation of this aspect of romance.

Mass is well represented in this painting given the amount of colour that is used on the lady. Much amount of colour is applied on the lady on the painting which is brown in colour representing the colour of human beings. The aspect of art is well represented in this painting and can be well appreciated from the fact that the background is blue and the body colour of the lady can well be seen given the disparity between blue and brown. Space is well seen in the painting and this is from the grid lines where it is possible to see the amount created at the top of the visual representation. The brown colour on the skin of the subject is deep and intense and this brightness has the audience identifying the person regardless of the distance. The placement of the subject is further from the edge to enable the audience to see the full body as per the artist’s consideration. Perspective is the specific element used in this setting and this is from the drawing lines that the artist used. The lines are effectively used to define space on a linear surface. The specific one used is the one point perspective where there is only one vanishing point that creates an illusion that the lady is posing over an object that appears to be a grid. Time and motion is rather absent in this provided piece of art and reason for this is that it is an abstract work. One of the crucial aspects of time and motion in art is kinetic energy and given the fact that the lady is just posing without movement shows a lack of this aspect. Light is effectively used in this painting to effectively portray the body and this shines bright to show her skin (Kirkman, 2016). The brown colour is effectively shown in this painting. It is also imperative to note that texture is well displayed in the work of art. Despite the fact that from a visual perspective it is hard to identify the texture, in case a person touches the piece of work, one can note the rough texture that Henri applies in his work.

Unity and variety are integrated in this piece of art from the white grid lines, the blue background and the brown colour of the lady in the painting. The picture achieves balance by having the grid lines aligning with the body of the lady in the painting. The focal point in this painting is the lady. The emphasis of this is provided by having her taking up the highest percentage of this painting (Garcia, Renoust & Nakashima, 2019). Contrast is effectively shown in art pieces (Ma, 2018).  and this is given the fact that there are three distinct colours. The colours include blue, white and brown. Repetition in the rhythm is on the grid lines that are white in consistence. The scale of the white grid line spaces in this painting is equal given that they are all square in shape. The square shape is geometric and is effective in showing the precise parts of a piece of art. Using this shape, it is possible for an art admirer to note the various sections that the artist emphasised on and also note the parts that he or she did not keenly pay attention to.

My initial interpretation of the painting changed and this is because I thought the meaning of this painting was only to push the aspect of sex to the audience. However, after going through the painting effectively, one can note that the artist, Matisse, meant to have people understanding the concept of painting and balance well. Classification of the painting is also notable from the work carried out by this artist. Such pieces of work should be encouraged in the contemporary artistry environment which will have a positive effect on not only the contemporary environment but also generations to come.

References

Juzefovič, A. (2016). Creative transformations in visual arts of early French modernism:    Treatment of nude body. Creativity studies9(1), 25-41.

Garcia, N., Renoust, B., & Nakashima, Y. (2019). Understanding art through multi-modal            retrieval in paintings. arXiv preprint arXiv:1904.10615.

Kirkman, R. (2016). Art Fart: Seeing Matisse’s ‘Large Reclining Nude’ at the BMA and on           the street: The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved on 25th May 2020. Web

            https://www.baltimoresun.com/citypaper/bcp-art-fart-seeing-matisses-large-reclining-         nude-at-the-bma-and-on-the-street20141204-story.html

Ma, W. (2018). Fujita Tsuguharu’s Transformation from a Modernist to a War Painter. Open         Journal of Social Sciences6(3), 147-155.

Char Character Analysis

Char Character Analysis

Regardless of whether the character is the adversary in the story Antigone, it is fundamental to regard how he is not commonly a heel. The explanation behind this is in his character, he plans to show a side of quietness where he needs to copy the nation from the shortest beginning stage obliged by beguiling and recover it to make them work possibly and as a sovereign state. Polyneices is the one that is respected imperfect by individuals in the nation and this is pondering the way that he saw a sort of misuse that did not come from the most trustworthy beginning stage arrange exist. It is a brief yielded outcome of this that from a general point of view all individuals in the country scorn him. Char Character Analysis

Creon’s decision that Polyneices will not get an ensured interment starts from his conviction that adversaries of Thebes are not owed the questionable regard and estimation of pride in death. Creon is less a savage heel and proceeding with a Theban maverick. For Creon, the security and intensity of Thebes is major than suddenness or referencing compliances.

Creon can in like a way be deciphered as an unforgiving position figure. By this seeing, Antigone is a legend who limits Creon to do what she sees is correct (Adaneth). Clearly, Creon ignores the flaw of Haemon, the Chorus, and Teiresias and ceaselessly gives the shocking idea of his own unsafe judgment. He demands that Antigone must be spurned, or likely, he will be viewed as a lesser man and pioneer. By this disconnecting, Creon is routinely worried over keeping up his own capacity and notoriety. The destiny of Thebes is of partner criticalness. Creon can be examined as the play’s surprising legend. Maybe strikingly more so than Antigone, Creon encounters the inversion of fortune that Aristotle sees as head to the strategy of a frightful figure. He starts at a high point as the starting late given out King of Thebes. It is by the comprehension of these differences that it is possible to see progress in the general community where there are changes in the societal structure of the area.

In Oedipus, strikingly, Creon moves as manipulative encouraged to get his terminations. Right about a time, that Creon sees that cautious speeches cannot change Oedipus, he has no bad moodfor repressing Antigone and Ismene hostage and undermining Theseus (Adaneth). Disturbed and reason on his will, barbarous pioneer, safe to the laws of the ideal animals or humankind.

As the starter of Thebes in the story, Creon is a known ruler who controls the military and respect of the state all by himself. As opposed to going through force as a dedication — as Creon was to handlewith the consummation of the King continues with recognized condition to be his unrestricted right and rules Thebes by his own goodness, rather than bit of scope the people. Creon’s role mix makes him incontrollable and exchanging off, even to his own pre-adulthood, who speaks as rationally to him as the King paid extraordinary mind to Oedipus. Stacked victoriously and need near the commencement, by the play’s verdict Creon bears the disdain of the infrequent animals, and expiries, in his utterrance, as “nobody. Nothing” (Adaneth). Char Character Analysis

Works Cited

Adaneth. Antigone. 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2020. Webhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=4&v=QHtgznLeeqo&feature=e                          mb_title

Anthropology

Anthropology 140

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft commonly identified as society and community were categories identified by Ferdinand Tonnies, a German sociologist to define social ties that defined each other. In his work, Tonnies managed to recognize the two and showed the manner through which the two concepts related to each other. He effectively portrayed how each of them was an influencer of the other. Emile Durkheim in the year 1893 developed the concept of Mechanical and organic solidarity as a sociology factor. It is important to compare and contrast the work of both Tonnies and Emile to gain a better comprehension of the theoretical concepts behind their work and further identify how they influence contemporary societal issues. Anthropology

One major similarity between the two concepts is the fact that they both sought to propagate development in the social environment. Considering the aspect of society and community, Tonnies’ categories revealed that for society to develop at any provided time and setting, it was important for people to live harmoniously as a community. Gesellschaft identifies life in a public sphere (Tonnies 18).Nobody has the ability to live on their own without relying on the assistance of others. People are very different and this is based on their backgrounds and other influencers. Regardless of these differences, it is important for these people to find a common ground and through this there is assurance that they can grow and develop society for the mutual benefit of all parties. Anthropology

Similar to the perception of Tonnies’ Emile also had the same foundation when establishing mechanical and organic solidarity. Despite the fact that these two solidarity concepts are different with relation to theory, it is critical to note that they have the same objective of societal development even from different viewpoints. Emile identified that in order for society to progress, it is important to have governing rules and this is because they ensure that people are better managed and identify boundaries. For mechanical solidarity, the rules are based on penal law and pay specific priority to repressive sanctions. In case a person carries out an activity devoid of considering the repercussions the consequent of this is general punishment with accordance to the law. For organic solidarity, the rules are with regard to restitute sanctions and these mostly apply to commercial and civil law. Anthropology

            A person might engage in an action that affects fellow citizens and this is by either illegally acquiring property or punitively damaging someone else’s property. The complainant has the right to report the act to the relative authority and the consequent of this is due process taking place. Through punishment, it is possible for the rest of the public to note that there are consequences to various actions and thus act accordingly. Here, it is possible to note that both Emile’s and Tonnies’ approach to society are similar based on the fact that they seek to promote peaceful societal growth. Anthropology

            Despite the similarities between the two approaches, it is also critical to note that there are some differences that should be accounted for when reviewing the concepts. The greatest difference between the two is the fact that Emile’s approach is primarily based on a structural or morphological bases while that of Tonnies is based on a wholesome or general approach. According to Tonnies, society should not be segmented and people ought to find a baseline from which they can work together to ensure general growth. Looking at his concept from a deeper social point of view, Tonnies approach is based on communism that seeks to have people working harmoniously and not having some people in society at an advantage over others. Tonnies believes that with level working, various detrimental aspects to growth such as jealousy and unnecessary feuds can be avoided in general. Anthropology

            Emile is of a different view and identifies that it is important for society to be segmented in order to ensure hard work for each party. Emile viewed himself as a student of society and recognized that society was open to change (Durkheim 4). Emile states that without hard work and focusing on communism approach, some people might take advantage of the situation and consequently incorporate a culture of laziness which is very insignificant for any society that seeks to progress. Focusing on mechanical solidarity, there should be some form of segmentation according to this character and this involves first clan-based segmentation and then followed by territorial segmentation based on input. Moreover, little interdependence should be the basis of society and by people identifying their roles in society; it is possible for them to progress. Focusing on organic solidarity, she states that division of labor should be imminent so that people can identify the specific amount of work to incorporate in a provided setting.

            Both Emile and Tonnies were well educated great thinkers and despite the fact that their ideologies were different, it is vital to note that they were accurate and productive for the society. Depending on the society where one comes from and the culture of people, it is possible to determine why one approach might be productive while the other might be counterproductive. Despite the differences, both strategies aim for an improved society.

Works Cited

Durkheim, Emile. The Division of Labor in Society.Simon and Schuster, 2015.

Tonnies, Ferdinand. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft.Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Angelina Cruse Response

Angelina Cruse Response

Angeline is very comprehensive in her review of the video and I respect the amount of work that she put in the project. The fact that she begins by reviewing the history of the issue is admirable. Noting that the engineering projects that began in the 1940s have impacted the current environment is very effective and reason for this is that it is possible to see changes in the field of water management. She notes some reputable events such as the Johnstone flood of 1889 that saw the dam failing because of some engineering problems that existed at the time. Angeline makes some formidable remarks that can see changes in not only the contemporary environment but also the near future. It is also important to note that the Glen Canyon was a loss and made the government and investors lose a lot of money. However, the Grand Canyon was saved and this led to improvement in engineering at the time. Angelina Cruse Response

Angeline is very comprehensive in her review of the video and I respect the amount of work that she put in the project. The fact that she begins by reviewing the history of the issue is admirable. Noting that the engineering projects that began in the 1940s have impacted the current environment is very effective and reason for this is that it is possible to see changes in the field of water management. She notes some reputable events such as the Johnstone flood of 1889 that saw the dam failing because of some engineering problems that existed at the time. Angeline makes some formidable remarks that can see changes in not only the contemporary environment but also the near future. It is also important to note that the Glen Canyon was a loss and made the government and investors lose a lot of money. However, the Grand Canyon was saved and this led to improvement in engineering at the time. Angelina Cruse Response

American National Government

American National Government

           The 2020 General Elections are very near, and citizens must understand the options that they have to enable them to make an informed decision on who they seek to lead the country for the coming four years. The current president Donald Trump has proved ineffective and incompetent. It is a result of this incompetence of why he is being dragged through numerous cases where one of the largest ones is the impeachment hearing that is currently in progress. The Republican has failed the United States people as a party under the leadership of Trump. As the Campaign Manager for Elizabeth Warren, I will seek to show the means through which Trump’s administration has failed and further show how Warren’s administration will lead the country to greater heights.  American National Government

Platform Issues

           The democratic camp in this campaign is seeking to address some of the platform issues that it feels have not been expertly handled by the current Trump administration. One of the platform issues is relating to civil rights where workers have not received the compensation and payment changes that they were promised at the beginning of the previous campaign. Issues relating to education are others that the Democratic Party is bound to handle, and this will see to it that there will be affordable education for children across all ages. More reforms are bound to take place relating to education in the contemporary environment. American National Government

           Healthcare is another platform issue that the party seeks to reform, and this is to ensure that the cost of acquiring medicine for immigrants is regulated because, as it currently stands, for immigrants to receive the medical care, they have to pay huge fees as compared to the natives. National security is another platform that will be addressed by the Democratic Party, and this is because of the increased number of threats that the United States has been facing from other countries, thus making it vulnerable. American National Government

           Jobs and the national economy are other aspects that should be improved in the country (Warner 36). The Democratic Party centers on increasing job opportunities for people. Given the fact that the Democratic Party mostly focuses on the issues that affect the middle class, it will have the affairs of these people as a priority and thus ensure job security in the rather harsh and turbulent times economically. Immigration reforms will also be a significant focus by the party, and through this, it will be possible to establish relationships with other countries. American National Government

Programs to Implement

           There are some programs that the Democratic Party seeks to implement concerning country development, and one of these is relating to the assistance of the immigrants. The Trump administration has made citizens view immigrants in a different light, and this is where they have been deemed terrorists, and drug dealers. However, immigrants have their rights, given that they contribute to the economic growth of the country. The program involves complete elimination of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, and the importance of this is ensuring that people do not live in fear but seek quality jobs effectively. American National Government

           The current Trump administration has also served to discredit Obama Care that was introduced during the Obama administration. The purpose of the act was to ensure that people affordably gained healthcare, and consequently, many people managed to carry out their daily activities without the fear of healthcare costs. Given the fact that this is a democratic camp, it will ensure that the act is rejuvenated and put back to the glory where it was. Another program to review is relating to National Security. As it is common knowledge, the United States, through a series of Tweets composed by the president, has angered many countries, influenced the global financial market, and there is the obvious risk of having these countries attacking the United States (Newburger). The program seeks to introduce a hotline for people to report any chatter that they might have acquired. American National Government

           A significant problem that is currently affecting the United States is gun violence. Gun violence has been a menace in society, and the reason for this is the fact that people offer the excuse that they have the weapons in their custody for their security. The consequent of this has children as young as 13 carrying out mass murder through shootings. It is imperative to establish a program that offers rewards to all illegal gun owners that turn in these weapons.

The success of the Current President

           One of the attributes that can be given to President Trump since he took office is the fact that he has managed to reduce the rate of unemployment in the country. The United States was facing massive levels of unemployment for numerous decades, and the 2008 recession hit the country worst, and this is where many people lost their jobs because of companies closing down. After the 2016 elections, people were positive that Trump would change the economy given the success that he had seen in the business world and true to that pre-assumption; he introduced strategies that led to a reduction in unemployment levels. American National Government

           Even though he gains recognition for having salvaged the United States at a point when it was facing a massive crisis, it is essential to note that his economic structure collapsed. The Democratic Party can further the arrangement he had implemented by making some amendments that will see job security for United States citizens.

           One other milestone that President Trump has had is relating to Tax cuts. Many industries in the country have seen tax cuts, and with the reductions in tax, it is imperative to note that it has been possible for people to purchase the commodities that they require in their life. The general economy of the United States has changed to the positive, and this is where it has been possible for institutions to open up new branches that have enabled the GDP of the country improving (Cole 325). With a positive moving environment, there is the assurance that the government will generally have more people. Despite the positive aspects identified, it is essential to note the importance of following in the steps of the president concerning the economic growth perspective. It is essential to appreciate work when it is effectively carried out. The fact that Trump managed this is something that should be emulated by the Democratic Party if it gets the chance to become the ruling party. Combining these economic strategies with the social policy that the country is identified for enables one to appreciate the changes that this party will bring to the current environment. American National Government

           Another success that Trump has had in his tenure is the fact that he has managed to clear Washington of the many corrupt officials that were present there. Currently, the rate of fraudulent cases coming from Washington has reduced, and the reason for this is the fact that Trump has set up security strategies that ensure that corrupt officials are detected and removed from office. It is because of these strategies that the embezzlement of funds has reduced in the country, and the funds have been used to serve citizens of the United States. This act of clearing corrupt officials is one of the factors that has contributed to the reduction in the tax rates charged by several institutions co0nsequently leading to economic growth for people who have managed to introduce their companies in the current environment. American National Government

Criticisms of the Current President

           One of the factors that have brought about criticism to the president is his nature of engaging negatively with administration and engaging in measures that can lead to war. President Trump has been vocal over social media where rather than using the appropriate channels to address some of the issues, he turns to platforms such as Twitter. Many other leaders, even from the Republican camp, have come out criticizing these moves, deeming them unprofessional.

           Another reason as to why the president is criticized is because of the actions that he takes before liaising with other senior members of his party. For example, the move to fire the former Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigations was plagued with a lot of criticism, and this is because the senior members of his administration had not got wind of what was happening (Schmidt 292). It is because of this and such moves that Trump has been condemned by not only members of the opposition but also members of his administration.

           It is also important to note that various groups have been angered by President Trump and have undermined his sentiments. From the time of his campaign, Trump has been very vocal and negatively talked about women. The sentiments he makes regarding women shows that he does not respect them, and having an impartial president that does not deem one gender superior to the other is essential, which the reason he has been under criticism is. The reason for increased criticism is that he has presented his disregard and disrespect for women to the national stage. In the later part of the year 2019, President Trump has faced a lot of criticism from the Jewish community, and the reason for this is the anti-Jewish views that he has offered when speaking on a national stage. American National Government

           Another reason as to why President Trump has been under criticism is because of his move to try revoking the Obama Care (Béland 691). His predecessor introduced the care, and this was used to ensure that people without the cash to access healthcare could get the quality they required for free. The act was very effective, given the fact that it came up at a time after the 2008 recession. President Trump has indicated that it is taking up a lot of money from the economy and that this money can be redistributed to cater for other resources. People have been angry and cried out to private organizations to assist in the issue while criticizing President Trump. It is important to note that because of some of the legislation moves that the president took, he is currently under pressure to resign where impeachments are hearing the proceeding.

Solutions Going Forward

           The solution to the issue of inadequate means of passing information is ensuring that there is a well-laid out communication plan where it will be possible for the advisory team to the president to offer feedback relating to the nature of the message. A person can compose a message, and it can gain different types of interpretation, and it is essential to incorporate a strategy that filters some terms and words that might appear negative to other administrators and other nations. It is imperative to note that through this form of management, it will be possible to have proper relations with fellow politicians and other nations. With appropriate relations, the country does not have to fear threats of nuclear war as it currently faces, and this important for the sanity and peace of mind of the population (Harkabi 67).

            A definite solution to the problem of women being oppressed is that the incoming administration will fight for the plight of women. Provided the fact that the candidate is female, then there is the assurance that this menace of females feeling oppressed will completely vanish from the contemporary scene. Women in public and private sectors will have equal rights to the men, and this is imperative to ensure that young girls in schools feel empowered. As identified, Obama Care will be fully restored to provide that the patients deserving urgent medical attention but lacking the means receive this attention.

How to Implement Programs

           One of the means through which the gun law program will be implemented is by setting up posts where the first few people that rush to offer their firearms will receive vast amounts of money and that as time progresses, the value offered to the people returning the guns reducing. This will prove or rather serve as an incentive to have these people rushing to return the guns. It is also essential to note that setting up numerous stations all across the states will be resourceful because some people might offer an excuse that he or she was living very far and thus did not have the chance to return these guns (Luca, Deepa and Christopher 87).

           Concerning the hotline for National Security, the best way to implement this is by increasing the number of advertisements. Through these ads, then people can note the numbers and channels to use when seeking to report suspicious activities. The strategy will serve well even for the other side because the people planning terrorism will have increased fear and consequently abort their mission, consequently leading to a safer environment for citizens. The issue of healthcare will be incorporated into the advancement of the Obama Care strategy. The program seeking to eliminate the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement will involve these officers deployed and their stations at the border and any other points disbanded.

Trump’s Record

           Trump has tarnished the Whitehouse that should be a body of integrity, and this is because of the various in-office meetings that take place and other policies formulated without going through the right channels (Fuller 43). The aspect marks one of the failures of the president, where it is expected the succession person to any office to improve the institution. President Trump has also put the country in the way of harm, and this is where it is unclear if an outside force is going to attack the United States.

           The president has aired his sentiments and insulted world leaders through social media that has endangered the country. The president has also put the entire world in a terrible situation, and this is because of his ignorance of climate change policies. The United States is supposed to offer assistance to the strategies, and this is provided the fact that it is one of the leading contributors to the problems. However, the country fails to own up, and this is not the entire country, but President Trump owing to his reasons.

Elizabeth Warren’s Record

           Warren thought of and founded the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. Elizabeth did this while working for President Obama, and this was one of the most significant accomplishments that earned her nationwide recognition. The purpose of the agency was to assist in the protection of average citizens that were being schemed and stolen from by huge companies operating in Wall Street. In the year 2012, she ordered three well known American Express companies to pay up the customers that they had defaulted during their time of operation. It was paid. The company works to protect clients and people of average income making (Cordray and Cary). The companies paid together with interest, and this was quite important I ensuring that other institutions do not engage such actions.

           In three years, Warren has also been responsible for sponsoring a total of thirty-six bills, and the importance of this is to ensure that the rights of the ordinary citizen are n0ot overlooked. President Trump states that he is fair to all. Still, the reality is that he is looking out for the large corporations that inject a lot to his campaign and the society while ignoring the other people who make up the vast number of people comprising of this. It is also essential to note that she has addressed the issue of women through female rights, where she has managed to have other regulations drafted to make people ignoring the privacy of women being punished adequately under the law.

           As a campaign manager, it is essential to note that it is my responsibility to review each of the strategies that I am instructed to accomplish. Understanding the platform issues to address is one critical aspect to consider, and then there is the identification of programs that are supposed to be implemented. Analysis of the success and the weaknesses of the president is important, after which there is a comparison of Elizabeth’s success to that of the current president Trump.

Works Cited

Béland, Daniel, Philip Rocco, and Alex Waddan. “Obamacare in the Trump Era: Where are we     Now, and Where are we Going?.” The Political Quarterly 89.4 (2018): 687-694.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1467-923X.12527

Cole, Alan. “Details and Analysis of Donald Trump’s Tax Plan.” Fiscal Fact No 482 (2015).

https://files.taxfoundation.org/legacy/docs/TaxFoundation_FF482_0.pdf

Fuller, Clay R. “Dismantling the Authoritarian-Corruption Nexus.” AEI Paper & Studies (2019):   COV2.

            https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-596404421/dismantling-the-authoritarian-     corruption-nexus

Harkabi, Yehoshafat. Nuclear War and Nuclear Peace. Routledge, 2017.

https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781315125404

Luca, Michael, Deepak Malhotra, and Christopher Poliquin. “The impact of mass shootings on      gun policy.” Journal of Public Economics 181 (2020): 104083.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272719301446

Newburger. JP Morgan has created an index to track the effect of Trump’s tweets on financial       markets: ‘Volfefe index’: CNBC. Retrieved 14 December

            https://www.cnbc.com/2019/09/08/donald-trump-is-tweeting-more-and-its-impacting-       the-bond-market.html

Richard, and Cary Coglianese. “Distinguished Policy Fellow Richard Cordray on Consumer        Protection.” (2019).

https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/podcasts/55/

Schmidt, Michael S. “Obstruction inquiry shows Trump’s struggle to keep grip on Russia   investigation.” New York Times 5 (2018).

            http://cs.brown.edu/people/jsavage/VotingProject/2018_01_04_NYT_ObstructioInquiryS            howsTrumpStruggleToKeepGripOnRussiaInvestigation.pdf

Warner, Michael. Local content in procurement: Creating local jobs and competitive domestic       industries in supply chains. Routledge, 2017.https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781351278089

Alzheimer’s disease

INTRODUCTION

Definition of the Chosen Topic

            Alzheimer’s disease is among the most common conditions facing the old age individuals in society. The condition is not part of the common ageing process, but rather the older population are at a higher risk of experiencing this disease. The disease emerged in 1906 after Dr. Alois Alzheimer reported the condition after examining a 55-year old woman who was experiencing progressive dementia. Notably, due to the progressive nature of this health condition, an individual with it alongside with the community in which he/she belongs are affected by this condition. In the latter stages of Alzheimer’s disease, an individual can suffer dementia that is characterized by the disorientation of the environment, and lack of unawareness of care givers and daily needs. Therefore, at such a stage, individuals may end up in an acute ward, for care. The fact that the disease is incurable, the patients receive is care and medication that slows down its progression and treats its symptoms. At the acute setting, Alzheimer’s disease patients can be subjected to various types of care, including person-centered care. Person-centered care is a form of care that treats individuals utilizing health services as equals in terms of planning, development, as well as the monitoring of care to ensure their needs are met effectively. Person centered care regards patients and their families as key stakeholders in making decisions with the aim of ascertaining the best outcomes. As such, this study seeks to examine the significance of person-centered care to older Alzheimer’s patients within an acute setting.

Purpose of the Topic

            In recent days, there is an increment of Alzheimer’s disease cases in the UK and other parts of the world. With the increment of such patients in society, there are also an increased number of them seeking medication in acute settings. Notably, person centered care is among the most common forms of care that is offered to these patients. Each type of care is associated with its strengths and weaknesses, particularly in regard to the way it treats patients and its expected outcome. Therefore, with the increased application of person-centered care as a technique of caring Alzheimer’s disease patients in acute settings, there is a need to determine its effectiveness in offering care. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to determine the significance of person centered care to Alzheimer’s’ disease patients within acute setting.

Aim of the Chosen Topic and Rationale

  • The primary aim of this study is to examine the significance of person-centered care to Alzheimer’s disease patients with in an acute setting.
  • The secondary aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of person-centered care to Alzheimer’s disease patients with in an acute setting.

Statistics About The Chosen Topic

            Alzheimer’s disease statistics are in most cases offered in form of dementia, which is the umbrella condition for such a condition. Dementia is a syndrome that is also characterized by the deterioration in thinking, memory, as well as an individual’s ability to carry out daily activities. According to World Health Organization (WHO), over 50 million individuals are suffering from dementia globally (WHO, 2019). There are an average of 10 million cases of dementia yearly. Markedly, Alzheimer’s disease is the most popular type of dementia that is responsible for around 60 to 70% of the entire cases.

            In the UK, around 4 people per a population of 100 individuals aged 65years and above have recorded Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia as per 2018. Consequently, for those aged 65 years and below, around 3 people per a 10 000 population have also recorded dementia. Besides, there was an increment in deaths as a result of Alzheimer’s disease and other related dementias from 868 in 2016 to 903 in 2017 (GOV.UK., 2019). This indicates that the issue of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias are increasingly attacking UK residents as represented in figure 1.

Figure 1: Crude rate of prevalence for dementia by age in England

Key Issues to be Addressed

            As indicated by global and national statistics, Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias are gradually becoming a major issue. This type of condition is increasingly attacking residents of the UK and there is a need to evaluate the forms of care that are utilized in acute settings. The fact that dementia is an incurable condition, the care of the patients is necessary to slow down the condition and treat some of its symptoms. Person centered care has gained popularity as the most appropriate form of care for Alzheimer’s disease patients in the country. In this regard, it is critical to examine why person-centered care is a better form of care to use for Alzheimer’s disease patients than other forms of care. This will aid in determining the effectiveness of person-centered care in addressing Alzheimer’s disease patients’ issues in the UK.

Findings About the Chosen Topic in the UK

            In recent days, person centered care is gaining popularity as an appropriate form of care for Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementias. Initially, there were complaints about the care offered to dementia patients. In this regard, various bodies in the UK have been committed to improving care. For instance, the Scottish Government came up with standards and regulations that are managing the treatment of dementia patients (Sehd.scot.nhs.uk. 2011). A detailed analysis of the standards indicates that they are based on person centered care. Reading part of the standards, they note that individuals have a right to diagnosis, right to be considered as a unique patient and be cared with respect and dignity, as well as the right of having carers. Part of the aspects mentioned in the standards aligns with person centered care. Moreover, most bodies within the UK are advocating for person centered care as the appropriate care for people with Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease

Stating Why You Narrow Your Research Down To UK

            Patient centered care approach is common and has been applied widely all over the world. In this regard, there exists various studies that has been carried out in various parts of the world on the topic. However, upon carrying out research, it was clear that there were limited studies on the topic focusing in the UK. Notably, different regions are likely to be characterized by unique factors, which may be responsible for the attainment of different outcomes. Therefore, it was ideal for narrowing the study to concentrate on the UK, to ascertain the exact significance of person centered care on Alzheimer’s disease patients. This will serve as a framework for applying or not applying person centered care in dealing with Alzheimer’s condition.

Purpose of Critical Review Research and Definition

LITERATURE REVIEW SEARCH STRATEGY

The 1996 IOM report Nursing Staff in Hospitals and Nursing Homes: Is It Adequate? Identified that despite the fact that nursing services are instrumental to the providing of hospital nursing, “little empirical data is available to support the anecdotal and other informal information that hospital quality of care is being adversely affected by hospital restructuring and changes in [nurse] staffing patterns (Brodaty& Green, 2002).

Since that report, and in part in response to it, the number of studies examining the association of staffing and quality in hospitals has exploded. Major studies demonstrating the association of nurse staffing and patient outcomes, including lengths-of-stay, mortality, pressure ulcers, deep vein thromboses, and hospital-acquired pneumonia have been published in first-tier journals, and several major literature reviews, syntheses, and meta-analyses have been published confirming the association of nurse staffing with patient outcomes.5 When the IOM revisited the issue of nurse staffing and patient care in 2004, it concluded: “Research is now beginning to document what physicians, patients, other health care providers, and nurses themselves have long known: how well we are cared for by nurses affects our health, and sometimes can be a matter of life or death.” 

Research on these issues is continuing. Indeed, its scope has expanded through programs such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative (INQRI), whose projects are examining how specific processes of care, such as care coordination, medication administration, or introduction of evidence-based protocols, ( Adams & Page, 2000) are associated with nursing care and patient outcomes.

Despite this research, the nature of nurses’ work in hospitals is not well understood by the public or policymakers. In a recent survey, 88 percent of the public agreed that making sure there are enough nurses to monitor patient conditions, coordinate care, and educate patients should be a part of efforts to improve quality, but focus groups find that the public is confused about what nurses do, the kind of training they receive, and what distinguishes them from nurse aides and other less trained personnel (Karlawish et al., 2000). The public understands that nurses’ work is physically and emotionally demanding but may view this work as delivering care as ordered and providing physical and emotional comfort to patients and their families. Nurses do far more, and the work entails both substantial intellectual and organizational competence. Among the critical tasks carried out by nurses are ongoing monitoring and assessment of their patients and, as necessary, initiating interventions to address complications or reduce risk; coordinating care delivered by other providers; and educating patients and family members for discharge, which can reduce the risk of posthospital complications and readmission.

It is imperative to have personal centered care for these patients if they are old and the reason for this is that they might not have the ability to ask for what is required. Research has shown that most of these patients do not have the ability to effectively claim their rights and consequently in the past most of them have died. Professionals that have failed to carry this out effectively have faced dire circumstances such as suing from relatives of the elderly patient. The quality of life for these patients that are old in age also increases depending on their conditions and the treatments that they get. Further research has shown that with better understanding of these patients it is possible to have an improved life for the care takers and nurse in the same environment.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Theme 1: Knowledge of Dementia

As a major theme, the knowledge of dementia centers on ‘healthcare professionals being aware of the consequences of hospital admission on people living with Alzheimer’s.’ This topic is vital as it determines the possession of knowledge by healthcare professionals on old people living with dementia and the consequences of hospital admission to such people that influences the provision of (PCC) Person-Centered Care. The three key studies that covered the theme included (Brazil et al., 2017; Lin et al., 2012; Ross et al., 2015)

Brazil et al., (2017) carried out a cross-sectional observational research that was centered on measurement and comparison of the reigning perceptions of healthcare professionals in two regions in Europe that mainly included Netherlands and the United Kingdom concerning the importance and consequences of implementing the recommendations in the (EAPC) European Association for Palliative Care for the provision of ideal care to people living with dementia for 316 physicians. The study revealed that while 90.4% of healthcare professionals in Netherlands spent 50% of their work time in nursing home setting, a significant 96.9% of the physicians in the UK spent a quarter of their time and the difference was attributed to the employment of physicians for old people living with dementia in Netherlands by nursing homes while the visions in UK barely collocated hence the constant need to travel to the nursing home. The cross-observational study also found out that at a ratio of 8.0-9.5, the healthcare professionals in Netherlands and UK found it important to have knowledge of person-centered care for older people living with dementia and the challenges that they face through hospital admission.

Similarly, in a cross-sectional survey carried out by Lin et al., (2012), in a Teaching Hospital in Southern Taiwan, to find out the knowledge of Alzheimer’s among 124 nurses, it was found that the total mean score for the healthcare professionals dementia care knowledge was 10.8(SD=2.0). This indicated that most healthcare professionals faced challenges on knowledge acquisition on dementia and equally confused dementia with delirium. The results of the study by Lin et al., (2012) also found out that out of all the healthcare professionals, the Licensed (RNs) Registered Nurses who had more years working experience made a significant 70.2% of the total number of healthcare professionals with knowledge of dementia compared to junior nurses that made up 54.8% of the physicians with knowledge of Alzheimer’s and consequences of hospital admission on people living with the condition with respect to age and experience.

However, a study carried out by Ross et al., (2015) at an acute medical ward in one of the largest teaching hospitals in the UK with participation of 14 nurses, found out that nurses at the institution had a clear understanding of the knowledge of dementia and its importance in the provision of person-centered care. Through the acquisition of the knowledge of dementia, the nurses also acknowledged the importance of the personal qualities of a healthcare professionals and relationships in the provision of quality person-centered care that exhibits an understanding of the consequences of hospital admission on people living with Alzheimer’s (Lyketsos, 2002).

The main similarity amongst the three studies is that they all used the observational method to gather information on healthcare professional’s knowledge on the consequences of hospital admission to people living with Alzheimer’s in relation to the provision of patient-centered care. However, the studies also exhibit significant differences especially in terms of how age and experience influences the acquisition of knowledge on dementia. While Ross et al., (2015) research reveals that all nurses irrespective of their age or experience have knowledge on dementia, Lin et al., (2012) contrast this finding by indicating that the physicians with many years of experience exhibited an increased knowledge of dementia and the impact of hospital admission especially on older people living with the condition.

Theme 2: Barriers to Person-Centered Care

This theme was mainly covered under three studies that included (Kupeli et al., 2016; McKeown et al., 2010; Ross et al., 2015). The theme was essential as it helped to unearth the ‘barriers to the provision of person-centered care to older Alzheimer’s patients encountered by healthcare professionals.’

In their study, Kupeli et al., (2016) conducted interactive interviews on 14 healthcare professionals that mainly included nurses, care home managers, commissioners, and healthcare assistants in UK and it was geared towards the ‘improvement of the understanding of HCPs attitudes and knowledge of the barriers to integrated care for people with advanced dementia.’ Kupeli et al. (2016) found out that the barriers could be categorised into social and economic system, care home and organisational factors, and a fragmented method of care. Through data sampling, the authors found out that the main barriers under the social and economic system included the societal attitudes towards old people, government policy, regulations that promoted minimal care, and the business model of care that mainly centered on the financial gains of the institutions that offered healthcare services to people living with Alzheimer’s condition. The study also found out that factors such as low skill base, home layout, role burden, job satisfaction and low salary also influenced provision of PCC by healthcare professionals (Hurley et al., 2015). Undeniably, the results also indicated that under the fragmented method of care, the main barriers were conflictive relationships between patients and physicians, lengthy referral processes, poor communication, and minimal care planning.

In carrying out their constructivist study, McKeown et al., (2010), they selected 4 different case studies of patients aged 87, 80, 88, and 83 respectively. The study encompassed 2 patients with mild effects of dementia while the other 2 had extreme health effects of the condition. The research was conducted in the care homes and in the presence of the familial caregivers of the patients to promote the effective provision of family and life story of the patient to determine provision of PCC. Accordingly, McKeown et al., (2010) realised that among the 4 case studies incorporated in their study, all of them showed increased conformity to the person-centered care offered to them especially when they were offered the platform to share their life stories either by themselves or through the home caregivers or family members. This translates to the impacts of the social setting of the patient on the ability of the healthcare professional to offer quality and person-centered healthcare services.

On the other hand, Ross et al., (2015) conducted an action-based research on the understanding and achievement of person-centered care which also thematically focused on the barriers to provision of quality and person-centered care to the old people living with Alzheimer’s. The study was conducted in an acute medical ward. The ward was in a large teaching hospital in the UK and the participants were interviewed on various aspects relating to the barriers that may hinder their ability to offer person-centered healthcare to people living with Alzheimer’s. Through sampling of the data and information offered by the participants, the researchers found out that the relationship between the healthcare providers and the people living with Alzheimer’s acted as a key determinant of the provision of person-centered care. This was further demonstrated in the essence that the confinement of people living with dementia in acute care environment led to a major problem-based approach to care, as the separation of the patients from their normal relationships negatively influenced their ability to positively respond to the treatment method adopted by the healthcare professionals.

As reported by Kupeli et al., (2016), the social and economic system highly influences the ability of healthcare professionals to offer person-centered care to people living with dementia through factors such as the societal attitudes towards people living with dementia that may include how healthcare professionals perceive the people with Alzheimer. Similar situation has been expressed by Ross et al., (2010) who found out that the major barrier to provision of person-centered care to people living with Alzheimer was the relationship that the healthcare professionals created between them and the patients. This means that both studies agreed with the fact that the social environment creating around the person living with dementia determine the provision of person-centered care. Therefore, if the healthcare provider maintains a negative attitude towards the person living with Alzheimer, it would be a major barrier towards the provision of quality and person-centered care.

Theme 3: Importance of Person-Centered Care Approach

The exploitation of this theme was covered under three main studies that included; Popham&Orrell, (2012); (2015); Surr et al., (2016); Baillie et al., (2012). The theme explored ‘understanding the importance of person-centered care approach towards older patients with dementia in hospital environment.’

 A research was carried out by Popham&Orrell, (2012) on the theme and it involved six participants that were mainly extracted from the families of the old people living with dementia. 5 care homes in UK were also incorporated in the study, thus the 5 managers of the institutions took part in the research. Each home that took part in the research was assessed using an environmental assessment tool namely (SCEAM) Sheffield Care Environment Assessment Matrix. From their study, Popham&Orrell, (2012) found out that person-centered care towards older dementia patients in hospital even was important as the design of the hospital environment was unique, comfortable and promoted personification of the treatment of older people living with dementia. This means that unlike the home environment, dementia patients receiving care in the hospital environment were likely to have access to important physical facilities and features such as gymnasium that improved their comfortability while receiving treatment. Similarly, this also meant that the older patients living with dementia could receive more personalised care within the hospital environment especially when allocated own rooms that allowed the healthcare professionals to offer them quality care unlike if they were to be taken care of at home by the focus groups that comprised of their family members.

However, a thematically related research was carried out by Surr et al., (2016) and it involved 40 participants who were acute hospital staff that worked in clinical roles. 90% of the participants were nurses. The study was done in one of the NHS Trust in North of England, in the UK. The study was specifically centered on the staff attitudes towards people living with dementia in acute hospitals. It was found out that without effective training on the importance of positive attitudes towards older people living with dementia among healthcare professionals, the hospital environment will not achieve its goal of providing quality person-centered care to older people living with Alzheimer’s (Surr et al., 2016). This translates to the importance of allowing nurses to go under special training programs that will enable them to acquire skills to provide person-centered care to older dementia patients in the hospital environment hence improving the provision of quality person-centered care specifically to older patients living with Alzheimer’s in UK.

Baillie et al., (2012) conducted a related study that was geared towards exploring how nursing students on practice placement cared for older people with dementia in the hospital. The study involve 464 participants who are adult nursing students at one University in England. The participants were them segmented into four key focus groups which led to the acquisition of vital information by Baillie et al., (2012) on the importance of person-centered care approach towards older dementia patients in hospital environment. The results of the study indicated that the use of person-centered care approach towards older people loving with Alzheimer’s in England was important as it enable the healthcare professionals to know the person well and build a relationship. It also promoted the involvement of the families of the patients while also promoting comfort and communication (Magai et al., 2000). This therefore means that in the hospitality setting, the provision of person-centered care strived to improve the relationship between the patients and healthcare givers thus making patients comfortable while positively influencing communication between physicians and older people living with dementia.

The studies exhibited significant similarities for instance, in terms of the design and features of the hospital environment, the studies conducted by Popham&Orrell, (2012) and Baillie et al., (2012) found out that the hospital features promoted the provision of person-centered care as the older people living with dementia were more comfortable and had amicable relations with the healthcare professionals that looked after them. Contrarily, although the findings of the study by Surr et al., (2016) was thematically related to the importance of person-centered care, it mainly explored the importance of training programs on nurses to improve their attitudes towards patients receiving dementia healthcare services within acute hospitals. Unlike Baillie et al., (2012) and Popham&Orrell, (2012) that centered their research on families and management of hospitals, Surr et al., (2016) explored the importance of person-centered approach knowledge acquisition through training programs that equipped healthcare professionals with positive attitudes that were vital towards the provision of person-centered care to older people living with Alzheimer’s.

Theme 4: Patient’s Quality of Life

            The three main studies that covered this theme were Robinson et al., (2010); Ross et al., (2015); Surr et al., (2016).

Robinson et al., (2010) carried out an empirical research that although it was centered on the improvement of patient-centered care for older people living with dementia in medical encounters, also focused on the theme of patient’s quality of life when exposed to person-centered care. The method adopted in the study was mainly observational and it involved video recording of 53 conversations carried out between psychiatrists of old and with old people living with Alzheimer’s and their family caregivers. The study further involved an educational workshop that was attended by 41 old psychiatrists, after which 59% made great changes on the ways they consulted and communicated with patients living with dementia while 71% developed new communication skills that played vital roles in the provision of person-centered care and the improvement of the quality of life of the older people living with Alzheimer’s (Robinson et al., 2010). This study therefore revealed that improved communication developed through person-centered care did not only influence the competence of the healthcare professionals but also positively influence the quality of the lives of patients and through effective communication, they built healthy relationships. 

A retrospective study that adopted an action research approach was carried out by Ross et al., (2015) and it involved 14 nurses drawn from an acute hospital in England. The study mainly adopted the method of discussion whereby the researchers assumed the lead roles in the discussion while they talked about the care of an old man who had been admitted at the facility following stroke and he had resisted help offered to him by nurses. The discussion explored whether the nurses’ understanding of more about the life of the man and his interests would promote provision of person-centered care that would improve the quality of the patient’s life. It also explored how meeting the needs of the patient’s would yield positive response from the patient thus improving the sense of fulfillment among nurses in the work that they do (Ross et al., 2015). The researchers found out that, the provision of person-centered care that catered for the personal interests and needs of the older patients living with Alzheimer’s improved their quality of life by positively influencing their response to healthcare services offered to them by physicians.

Similarly, a research on this theme was also carried out by Surr et al., (2016) and it gathered information from 40 acute hospital staff, 90% of whom were nurses. The study was carried out in one NHS Trust located in the North of England, UK. The study found out that although person-centered Alzheimer’s care improved the quality of life of old people living with dementia, there was still limited knowledge to it, thus through suggestion of training programs, the researchers concluded that the training of nurses on person-centered care influenced their effectiveness to offer healthcare services that influenced the quality of the life of old people living with dementia. Although the study carried out by Sur et al., (2016) differed from those carried out by Robinson et al., (2010) and Ross et al., (2015) as it centered on the importance of nurse training for skill acquisition to boost their competence in healthcare provision, the three studies exhibited similarities in the acknowledgement of the fact that person-centered approach to providing care to old patients living with dementia improved the quality of their lives as they could positive respond to treatment and maintain positive rapport with professionals and the society that was mainly composed of homecare givers and their families.

DISCUSSION

Understanding psychological development of an individual has he or she progresses through different stages of life is very important. The first stage is the progression from infancy to toddlerhood. In this stage of development, the major psychological changes include the ability of the toddler to think. At this stage, the brain has developed so much that the toddler wonders at times who to and who not to believe or trust. The other stage of development to focus on is the change from a toddler to a baby. This is another stage that bears numerous psychological developments. At this stage the child is curious and it is where the child will seem to loiter in different places. The child at this point should not be curtailed that freedom but rather receive encouragement. Through this freedom, the child gets to have happiness and consequently less negative behavior.

The next stage of development is where the child develops into an adolescent. An adolescent is the age where numerous physical developments take place. The stage gains recognition for these noticeable developments but is critical to note that the brain of these young ones is still changing and it is at this stage that they require the highest amount of parental support. Young ones in this stage are mostly teenagers and this is where their sexuality begins showing. The two genders will start feeling mixed emotions about the opposite sex and these mixed emotions confuse them. It is thus imperative to have a guardian or relative to offer advice.

Another stage of development is from an adolescent to an adult. This stage has numerous developments and these are important for they help the person shape their lives. This stage of development has the young adult gaining a sense of responsibility. It is at such a stage that the young adult leaves home to begin their lives either in campus or after looking for employment. At this stage, the get to understand that they are adults and consequently feel that they ought to take responsibility for their actions. The other stage is stat of adulthood to middle age. This is the stage where there is a lot of tension after feeling as if that their lives is going fast. This is the stage where the midlife crisis takes place that affects people psychologically very much.

The next stage is the change from adulthood to senior life. This is the stage where the person is at the peak of employment and some people fear because they feel that they are about to retire and have not accomplished everything else they set to. Another stage is the movement from senior life to the elderly. At this point, the elderly have reduced the amount of thoughts they had and the reason for this is that they feel tired mentally.

The most likely group to get schizophrenia is the adolescent age and the reason for this is that this group bears the likeliness to breakdown emotionally and change behavior due to the numerous physical and emotional changes taking place in their bodies (Szasz, 2016). As for Alzheimer, the most likely group to get the disease is the people in the elderly group. This group is already tired after many years of hard work and they are vulnerable to memory loss and confusion that are both signs of Alzheimer.

1000 WORDS

            The contemporary environment has seen the introduction of many types of drugs and the purpose of these drugs is to serve different purposes depending on the prescription offered by the physicians or the manner through which the person founds the most effective manner to use in case the drugs used are recreational drugs. Benzodiazepine is a psychoactive drug which belongs to a family of drugs that is referred to as minor tranquilizers. Going through the information regarding the drug that is readily available is critical for it offers one the knowledge required on how the drug serves people.

            Benzodiazepine is used for many purposes both in the medical environment and the local social environment. The drug has received acclamation from various professionals because of its ability to solve some of the health problems that people face. Reviewing the treatment and management use of the drug is essential knowledge for any person.

            Owing to the fast appearance of anxiolytic acid, it is imperative to note that the drug is used for the treatment of anxiety present in people that have panic disorder. Despite the fact that doctors have been effective in proving this, the American Psychologists Association states that more tests ought to continue in order to ensure the efficiently of the drug in the resolution of panic attacks (Olfson, King &Schoenbaum, 2015). The man issue of contention regarding the drug is the impact of the substance on the body. Some people are of the opinion that with continued usage, the panicking disorder might resurface as an even worse condition.

            For the short-term treatment of Insomnia, the outlined drug is used effectively. However, doctors’ state that usage of the drug for over two to four weeks has the repercussion of creating some form of dependency and can at times lead to addiction. It is advised that older adults not use the drug for the resolution of their insomnia problems unless other types of treatment fail (Pariente, 2016). Some of the characteristics that appear owing to increased use of the drug include increased number of traffic accidents by the users owing to their lack of coordination when using the drug.

            Epileptic seizures are medical conditions that require the administration of Benzodiazepine in their treatment. The reason why the drug is the best recommended is owing to the fact that it is a very fast and effective anticonvulsant. In the medical environment, some of the preferred ones include Diazepam and Lorazepam. In the community or in a local setting, engaging in intravenous treatment is ill advised and thus the reputable drugs to use include rectal diazepam (Olfson, King &Schoenbaum, 2015). When a person uses the drug continuously over a long period, there is the medical consultation required in case the person intends to stop and this is because there is the risk of rebound seizures.

            is the best-known form of Benzodiazepine present for Alzheimer patients in the current environment for people that are motivated to quit consumption of alcohol. In order to reduce the risk of building some form of tolerance, then it is essential to ensure that the usage of the drug is at a minimal and at the shortage amount of time that is possible. The family of drugs that bears a longer half-life bears the tendency of making detoxification even more manageable and it is possible to have visible withdrawal effects from the drug use.

            It is also essential to understand that the drug is also used in the treatment of anxiety problems. The reason as to why the drug is mostly used is because it manages to resolve the anxiety issue rather rapidly. However, it is also essential to note that the use of the drug for a period of two weeks or more is not advisable for it might affect the immune system of the individual. It is noteworthy that if a person continues to use the drug, there’s more than 50% chance that the person, especially the elderly might relapse after quitting after making considerable improvements (Zhang, 2016).

            The drugs are also used for the patients going through mechanical ventilation and the reason for this is that they enable the people to calm down and this is because the drug is used as a sedative. The drugs are also used for the management of breathing processes in some people that have shortness of breathes. Benzodiazepines are also used for the relaxation of the muscles and this mostly in tense individuals and consequently ensures that they can lead stress free types of lives.

            Despite the stated advantages of using the drug, it is vital to note that there are some conditions where it is not advisable to administer the drug at all. Mostly because of the muscle relaxant action, the drug has the effect of causing some form of respiratory depression and can lead to increased problems for a person. Reviewing some of the cases where the drug might become problematic is essential in understanding it better.

            The Food and Drug Administration in the United States has determined that the drug is rather harmful or rather has the potential to harm an unborn child. If an expectant mother gets to use the drug, it is probable that she might eventually end up having floppy infant syndrome. The newborns are likely to suffer from lethargy and hypotonia and even difficulties in breathing. The use of the lowest effective dose of the drug reduces the chances of the unborn child suffering from some of these accompanying conditions.

500 WORDS

            Understanding psychological development of an individual with regard to Alzheimerhas he or she progresses through different stages of life is very important. The first stage is the progression from infancy to toddlerhood. In this stage of development, the major psychological changes include the ability of the toddler to think. At this stage, the brain has developed so much that the toddler wonders at times who to and who not to believe or trust. The other stage of development to focus on is the change from a toddler to a baby. This is another stage that bears numerous psychological developments. At this stage the child is curious and it is where the child will seem to loiter in different places. The child at this point should not be curtailed that freedom but rather receive encouragement. Through this freedom, the child gets to have happiness and consequently less negative behavior.

The next stage of development is where the child develops into an adolescent. An adolescent is the age where numerous physical developments take place. The stage gains recognition for these noticeable developments but is critical to note that the brain of these young ones is still changing and it is at this stage that they require the highest amount of parental support. Young ones in this stage are mostly teenagers and this is where their sexuality begins showing. The two genders will start feeling mixed emotions about the opposite sex and these mixed emotions confuse them. It is thus imperative to have a guardian or relative to offer advice.

Another stage of development is from an adolescent to an adult. This stage has numerous developments and these are important for they help the person shape their lives. This stage of development has the young adult gaining a sense of responsibility. It is at such a stage that the young adult leaves home to begin their lives either in campus or after looking for employment. At this stage, the get to understand that they are adults and consequently feel that they ought to take responsibility for their actions. The other stage is stat of adulthood to middle age. This is the stage where there is a lot of tension after feeling as if that their lives is going fast. This is the stage where the midlife crisis takes place that affects people psychologically very much.

The next stage is the change from adulthood to senior life. This is the stage where the person is at the peak of employment and some people fear because they feel that they are about to retire and have not accomplished everything else they set to. Another stage is the movement from senior life to the elderly. At this point, the elderly have reduced the amount of thoughts they had and the reason for this is that they feel tired mentally.

The most likely group to get schizophrenia is the adolescent age and the reason for this is that this group bears the likeliness to breakdown emotionally and change behavior due to the numerous physical and emotional changes taking place in their bodies (Szasz, 2016). As for Alzheimer, the most likely group to get the disease is the people in the elderly group. This group is already tired after many years of hard work and they are vulnerable to memory loss and confusion that are both signs of Alzheimer.

References

Adams, T., & Page, S. (2000). New pharmacological treatments for Alzheimer’s disease:   implications for dementia care nursing. Journal of advanced nursing31(5), 1183-1188.

Baillie, L., et al. (2012). Caring for older people with dementia in hospital part two: strategies. Nursing older people, 24(9).

Brazil, K., et al. (2017). Providing optimal palliative care for persons living with dementia: a comparison of physician perceptions in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Journal of palliative medicine, 20(5), 473-477.

Brodaty, H., & Green, A. (2002). Defining the role of the caregiver in Alzheimer’s disease treatment. Drugs & aging19(12), 891-898.

Kupeli, N., et al. (2016). What are the barriers to care integration for those at the advanced stages of dementia living in care homes in the UK? Health care professional perspective. Dementia.

Lin, P. C., et al. (2012). Hospital nurse knowledge of and approach to dementia care. Journal of Nursing Research, 20(3), 197-207.

McKeown, J., et al. (2010). The use of life story work with people with dementia to enhance person‐centered care. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 5(2), 148-158.

Popham, C., &Orrell, M. (2012). What matters for people with dementia in care homes? Aging & mental health, 16(2), 181-188.

Robinson, L., et al. (2010). Improving patient-centered care for people with dementia in medical encounters: an educational intervention for old age psychiatrists. International Psychogeriatric, 22(1), 129-138.

Ross, H., et al. (2015). Understanding and achieving person‐centered care: the nurse perspective. Journal of clinical nursing, 24(9-10), 1223-1233.

Sehd.scot.nhs.uk. (2011). Standards of care for dementia in Scotland. [online] Available at:             https://www.sehd.scot.nhs.uk/mels/CEL2011_20.pdf [Accessed 29 Jan. 2020].

GOV.UK. (2019). Statistical commentary: dementia profile, April 2019 update. [online]     Available at:

            https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/dementia-profile-april-2019-              data-update/statistical-commentary-dementia-profile-april-2019-update [Accessed 29 Jan.             2020].

WHO. (2019). Dementia. [online] Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-       sheets/detail/dementia [Accessed 29 Jan. 2020].

Olfson, M., King, M., &Schoenbaum, M. (2015). Benzodiazepine uses in the United         States. JAMA psychiatry72(2), 136-142.

Pariente, A. (2016). The benzodiazepine–dementia disorders link: current state of knowledge. CNS drugs30(1), 1-7.

Tannenbaum, C., Martin, P., Tamblyn, R., Benedetti, A., & Ahmed, S. (2014). Reduction of        inappropriate benzodiazepine prescriptions among older adults through direct patient       education: the EMPOWER cluster randomized trial. JAMA internal medicine174(6),    890-898.

Lader, M. (2014). Benzodiazepine harm: how can it be reduced? British journal of clinical             pharmacology77(2), 295-301.

Karlawish, J. H. T., Klocinski, J. L., Merz, J., Clark, C. M., & Asch, D. A. (2000). Caregivers’      preferences for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology55(7),    1008-1014.

Lyketsos, C. G., & Olin, J. (2002). Depression in Alzheimer’s disease: overview and          treatment. Biological psychiatry52(3), 243-252.

Zhang, Y., Zhou, X. H., Meranus, D. H., Wang, L., &Kukull, W. A. (2016). Benzodiazepine use and cognitive decline in elderly with normal cognition. Alzheimer disease and associated             disorders30(2), 113.

Hurley, A. C., Volicer, L., Rempusheski, V. F., & Fry, S. T. (1995). Reaching consensus: The       process of recommending treatment decisions for Alzheimer’s patients. Advances in    Nursing Science18(2), 33-43. Magai, C., Kennedy, G., Cohen, C. I., &Gomberg, D. (2000). A controlled clinical trial of            sertraline in the treatment of depression in nursing home patients with late-stage      Alzheimer’s disease. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry8(1), 66-74

Academic integrity and Plagiarism

Academic integrity and Plagiarism

The first article to review is titled Academic integrity and Plagiarism: The new regulations in India  (Kadam, 2018). The major points outlined in the article are regarding the manner that students are supposed to be punished for failing to observe the rules on academic integrity. The major reason why I chose this article is the fact that it discusses the new regulations. Given the fact that the article is only two years old is a factor that motivated me. Reviewing articles that are modern or contemporary is imperative for it enables a person to understand the regulations better and ensure that the rules are well followed.

The other article that I focused on was Academic Integrity: Information Systems Education Perspective (McHaney, Cronan& Douglas, 2019). The major point that I came to learn from this article is the fact that the modern information technology environment has allowed lecturers to note plagiarism very easily as compared to earlier times. The ability to have this has ensured that students are more diligent and consequently understand the concepts that are taught in class. The reason why I chose this article is the fact that it discusses matters technology which is very important in the contemporary environment.

The process of finding articles in Google scholar is not difficult as opposed to what many people assume. The first step is going to Google and searching for Google scholar. After the results, one clicks on the one with Google scholar. After getting to the site, then it is important to type the topic that the person seeks to investigate. After searching, a person is advised to filter where the only results needed are for articles that are not older than five years. The filter is done by clicking on “not older than” section on the left of the page. I found this very easy and nothing was quite difficult. I learned the importance of using filter to get information that is updated. 

References

Kadam, D. (2018). Academic integrity and plagiarism: The new regulations in India. Indian          Journal of Plastic Surgery51(02), 109-110.

McHaney, R., Cronan, T. P., & Douglas, D. E. (2019). Academic integrity: Information systems   education perspective. Journal of Information Systems Education27(3), 1.