Symposiums

Narrative Account

            Symposiums are an essential component of the ancient Greek social practice. The main room for men, known as the andronin Greek language, hosts the party, which is comprised of two parts.  A meal is served in the first segment, while the second part involves drinking of diluted wine, conversations, speeches and songs (Allen 205). The andronconsists of squarely arranged couches to ease conversation between freeborn males, who are the guests in the symposiums. After the meal, the guests are cleaned and perfumed by the slaves of the attendants before tasting the unmixed wine. One party participant is appointed the ‘symposiarch’ to determine, in consultation with the rest of the party members, the amount of wine to be served and its concentration. A friend attended Greek party, which is one of the typical symposiums, and reveals the guests’ influence to the nature of the party, as well as the narrator’s effect. Symposiums

            The nature and the social status of the guests at the symposium immensely determines the manner in which the party fairs including the amount and concentration of the wine served, as well as the conversations and speeches, among other elements of the event. For instance, at the Agathon’s party as described by Plato Socrates among other respected personalities, such as Alcibiades, Eryximachus, Phraedrous and Aristodemous had converged at Agathon’s house to celebrate with him upon winning the first prize in the Lenaean festival that took place on the previous day of the party date (Candiotto 24). Clearly, most of the guests present were renowned intellectuals of the time that included poets, doctors and politicians, and commanded immense respect in the society. Thus, the Plato’s symposium was characterized by speeches, conversations and moderate wine drinking, andan immense philosophical appeal because of the Socrates’s compelling influence.  Symposiums

In ancient Greek tradition, symposiums were highly important events that were organized for entertainment. Prior to the eventdescribed by Plato, Socrates bathed and wore sandals, a thing he rarely did, to signify the importance of the party that he was about to attend that evening. However, most of the current such parties largely include a dramatic aspect comprising of poetry, games, songs and comic discussions, among others, and moderate or reduced conversations of immense seriousness between the guests. Notably, in the Plato’s symposium, as narrated by Apollondorus, serious discussions and speeches hijacked the dramatic nature of the party and largely involved a competition of ideologies between the guests (Luz 16). Clearly, Socrates attendance drifted the event from an entertainment and celebration orientation to a forum for enlightened exchange of ideas and competition for influence. However, the presence of by friend who is a politician did not necessarily make the meeting political. Thus, the presence of a guest can affect the nature of a symposium or not.

            Socrates and philosophy occupied a prestigious position in the society at the time of the Plato’s symposium, hence, directly or indirectly provided definitions of enlightenment by setting implicit or explicit rules of engaging a wide range of issues. For instance, at the time of invitation to the party,Agathon insisted that the presence of elites such as Socrates at the party would make it one of the most spectacular of all symposiums. However, the philosopher and his contemporaries never attended such gathering because of their playful nature and their reduced importance. Socrates decided to attend the symposium after the host expressed immense sadness because of the failure to secure their attendance (Allen 204). Therefore, the social status of Socrates and the rest of the elite is revealed by Agathon’s enthusiasm regarding their participation and their ability to increase the value of the less important. Similarly, the attendance of the party attended by my friend and his contemporaries was determined by their position in the society. Symposiums

            The impact of the Socrates started to be felt immediately he arrived at the party when Agathoninvited the philosopher to share a couch with him to benefit from his great wisdom. However, the philosopher replied to the host in a mockery style by indicating that if wisdom could freely flow from the more to the lesser wise, he would be the biggest beneficiary of the two. The satirical statement and the increased respect that Socrates commanded from some of the present guests, such asPhraedrous, Alcibiades and Aristodemous established a robust philosophical authority over drama, which formed the foundation of the rest of the night’s activity. For instance, Agathon, after being cornered by the philosopher’s wisdom suggested that they should engage in a philosophical competition later in the night, hence, set the stage for the speeches and conversations that followed. In addition,the suggestion to reduce the amount of wine taken, by Eryximachus, a doctor by profession, because of the increased effects of the hangover from previous night drinking on all the guests except Socrates, who took moderate amounts of wine, seem to have been influenced by the philosopher. Furthermore, the guests’ decision to send away the female expected to provide entertainment seemed to have been influenced by the Socrates’ reduced attraction to physical love and his preference of philosophical reasoning. Thus, the philosopher directly determined the event by changing or setting the rules of definition, as well as well as indirectly through immense respect that he commanded and the statements he made. 

            The impact of the narrator may not be explicit but is real and can twist the narrative. For instance my may have twisted the narrative to uphold his image and that of his friends. Similarly, Apollondorus narrated the Plato’s symposium to an anonymous companion, who was a rich businessman. Apollondorus remembers the accounts of the party he had given to Glaucon (the Republic’s main interlocutor and a half-brother to Plato) who had scanty details of the event from unreliable sources. Apollondorus heard the story from Aristodemus, one of the symposium’s guests, and counter checked some of the facts from Socrates.Aristodemus, the first level narrator, was a great admirer of his friend Socrates, who invited him to the party, hence, his version of the narrative was maybe largely philosophical to glorify the great philosopher (Socrates). In addition, the Socrates’s confirmation of facts may have resulted to the philosophical aspect of the symposium. Furthermore, Plato was a protégé of Socrates, hence, may have deliberately picked the philosophical aspect and ignored the rest of the symposium’s elements to portray an increased value of his discipline. The narrators possessed immense control of the narrative, which probably they used to develop a perspective of the symposium aimed at an ulterior motive. However, the lack of an abstract perspective in the story narrated by my friends indicate that their influence can only be speculated. Thus, the narrator can possess immense influence of the narrative but it cannot be confidently confirmed. Symposiums

            Some of the narrators’ effect is manifested in the supremacy of philosophy over other disciplines, which is evident throughout the Plato’s narrative. For instance, the image of the Socrates portrays a very wise man who easily outshined every guest in the symposium, as well as was immensely praised by a big number of guests present. In addition, the philosopher pointed and rectified errors in the speeches of the guests who spoke before him, hence, seemed to offer an undisputable reference of the correct and the wrong. Furthermore, while offering his speech, Socrates referred his arguments from a female character known as Diotima, who he claimed that gave him the wisdom about love, which he in turn was passing to the guests in style that virtually made the woman one of them (Candiotto 32). Notably, symposium guests were exclusively freeborn males and women participation in the events was reserved for entertainment and under no any circumstance a woman was supposed to give wisdom to men. The Socrates’s decision to indirectly include a woman guest expresses the authority that he commanded, and may have been deliberately inserted by the narrators to portray the importance of philosophy and philosophers in the Greek society of the time. However, the Plato’s symposium is slightly different from the one narrated to me by my friend because no one of the guests exhibited the sole authority throughout the party. Thus, the guest’s influence in a symposium is not guaranteed and the narrator can choose to develop it in the narrative or not. 

            Notably, some scholars argue that the Plato’s symposium is to some extent fictional and most of the characters in the party were an imagination of the philosopher. Specifically, Plato’s description of the Socrates changes from a person in his early age literature towards a fictional character that he used as his mouthpiece, in the philosopher’s middle and later dialogues. Therefore, the figure of Socrates in the Plato’s Symposium, which is one of his middle age dialogue, may have been exaggerated to fit the desires of the philosopher.

            The Kylix, a black footed cup created in c. 500 BCE, which is the approximate time that the Plato’s symposium took place, reflects the event as described by the philosopher, as well as that narrated by my friend. The interior part of the vase depicts vines with grapes on the outer band and a scene of a symposium around the middle strip, as well as gorgon’s head at the core of the cup. In addition, the painting on the vase includes a slave serving wine to the symposium’s guests. The Gorgon, which could turn a person into a stone, is placed at the center of the phase to show the seriousness of the matters handled in the Plato’s symposium, while excluding other participants, such as women who graced events of that kind, reveals the transformation that resulted from Socrates and other elite’s attendance (Luz 21). Thus, Plato may have used the Kylixto develop an imaginary symposium, which represents his views on the events.

            Symposiums’ guests and the narrator of their occurrence can immensely shape the nature of the parties. For instance, Socrates’s attendance completely changed Agathon’s party, which was organized to celebrate his first tragedy prize. The philosopher drifted the event from a dramatic orientation to a philosophical discussion, which involved serious conversations, using immense respect that he commended and well thought statements. On the other hand, the narrators may have distorted the real appearance of the event to portray philosopher as more important compared to the rest of the disciplines. Aristodemus, Apollondorus and Plato, were some of the greatest admirers of the Socrates and Philosophy, hence, may have deliberately presented a philosophical perspective of the meeting to make the disciplines look more appealing compared to others, such as medicine and poetry. However, my friend’s narrative does not seem to explicitly include the influence of the narrator. Thus, the influence of the narrator cannot be explicitly determined unless the narrative is confirmed from other sources present at the symposium.

Works Cited

Allen, Sarah. “Plato AndLevinas”. Symposium, vol 14, no. 2, 2010, pp. 202-206. Philosophy Documentation Center, doi:10.5840/symposium201014229.

Candiotto, Laura. “Review of Cooksey T. L., Plato’s Symposium: A Reader Guide.” Plato Journal, no. 12, 2012.

Luz, Menahem. “The Rejected Versions InPlato’S Symposium”. Plato Journal, vol 14, 2014, pp. 9-22. Coimbra University Press, doi:10.14195/2183-4105_14_1.

EKU Jazz Ensemble Concert

EKU Jazz Ensemble Concert

            On Thursday, February 22, 2018, the EKU Jazz Ensemble hosted a spectacular and unique jazz concert under the direction of Dr. Larry Nelson. The concert, which happened at the Brock auditorium included classical and contemporary jazz music and featured all jazz band members playing different instruments, as well as a number of talented musicians that provided an assortment outstanding musical combinations. The concert was a perfect chance to experience immense music diversity that for a starter jazz enthusiast. Concert management team had installed perfect lighting that highly improved the liveliness of the performance. Although the auditorium was at full capacity, the general atmosphere was peaceful and soothing. The culmination of the concert was the performance of the song “Sugar”, which involved the use of instruments. It revealed reveal that an excellent mastery of the jazz instruments can immensely enhance the overall experience even without the vocals. EKU Jazz Ensemble Concert

            The EKU Jazz Ensemble impressed every member of the audience. After the first song, I noticed that the group was performing a number of familiar tunes. The performance possessed a mystifying, almost supernatural quality that was realized by playing with minor chords. Specifically, at the start of the performance there was a robust emphasis on the antiphony. The audience had a clear view ofall the instruments on stage, which included the trombone, guitars, as well as the tenor sax. One of the spectacular skill of the saxophone player was the ability to repeatedly use sequential chords rather than traditional ringing.  Furthermore, the pianist displayed an outstanding ability to play a robust tune simultaneously followed by a gradual simmering down, which produced a rough feeling for the audience. A climax was gradually developed towards the end of the music before and abrupt end. The music performed possessed all the elements of typical jazz songs and provided an immense satisfaction for the listeners as well as attracted high levels of admiration. EKU Jazz Ensemble Concert

The group’s performance of the song was spectacular. Furthermore, it was immensely improved by the timing. EKU Jazz Ensemble chose to perform ”Sugar” at the beginning of the concert which provided a welcoming atmosphere to the audience as wells a synopsis of the nature of the show. Compared to most of the composers studied in class, the group displayed an outstanding use of instruments to provide an exemplary experience without the vocals. In addition, the ability to create a compelling and unique climax towards the end of the song required an excellent mastery of different instruments as well as jazz music in general, which reveals high levels of talent in the band as compared to composers studied in class that in most cases were limited to only one or two instruments. Thus, EKU JAZZ ensemble succeeded in providing a unique and spectacular concert because of their increased prowess in playing instruments such as the piano, guitar and the saxophone. 

The experience of attending the concert was extremely fantastic. It was enhanced by the quality and skills of the artists and the music that was performed. Personally, I think that the concert provided a reinvigorating view into jazz and the endless harmonizing potential it can provide. EKU Jazz Ensemble played varying categories of jazz music to satisfy the demands of all members of the audience. Notably, some spectators enjoyed fast paced music, while others preferred slow compositions. In addition, the concert left me with a deep appreciation of a wide range of talents and experts involved in the creation of good jazz music.  EKU Jazz Ensemble Concert

Price Elasticity of Demand

Q4:a. Price Elasticity of Demand for Physician Visits

Copayment LevelPhysician Visits Per Capital

$10 6.3

$15 6.0

$20 5.7

$25 5.4

$30 5.1

$35 4.8

Level 1

Initial price $10                                               initial visits 6.3

Final price $10                                                 Final visits 6.3

Average price= (10+10)/2=10                          Average visits= (6.3+6.3)/2=6.3

Change in price 10-10=$0                               Change in visits=6.3-6.3=0

%change in price (0/10)*100=0                         %change in visits (0/6.3)*100=0

Level 2

Initial price $10                                               initial visits 6.3

Final price $15 Final visits 6.0

Average price= (10+15)/2=$12.5Average visits= (6.3+6.0)/2=6.15

Change in price 15-10=$5                               Change in visits=-6.3+6.0=-0.3

%change in price (5/12.5)*100=40%change in visits (-0.3/6.15)*100= 4.88

Price Elasticity of Demand=(-4.88/40)=-0.122

Level 3

Initial price $15initial visits 6.0

Final price $20 Final visits 5.7

Average price= (20+15)/2=$17.5                    Average visits= (5.7+6.0)/2=5.85

Change in price 20-15=$5                               Change in visits=-6.0+5.7=-0.3

%change in price (5/17.5)*100=28.57%change in visits (-0.3/5.85)*100= -5.128

Price Elasticity of Demand=(5.128/28.57)=-0.180

Level 4

Initial price $20initial visits 5.7

Final price $25 Final visits 5.4

Average price= (20+25)/2=$22.5                    Average visits= (5.7+5.4)/2=5.55

Change in price 25-20=$5                               Change in visits=5.7-5.4=-0.3

% change in price (5/22.5)*100=22.22%change in visits (-0.3/5.55)*100=5.41

Price Elasticity of Demand = (5.41/22.22)=-0.243

Level 5

Initial price $25initial visits 5.4

Final price $30 Final visits 5.1

Average price= (30+25)/2=$27.5                                     Average visits= (5.4+5.1)/2=10.5

Change in price 30-25=$5                                                Change in visits=-5.1-5.4=-0.3

% change in price (5/27.5)*100=18.182 %change in visits (-0.3/5.25)*100=-5.71

Price Elasticity of Demand = (5.71/18.182)=-0.314

Level 6

Initial price $30initial visits 5.1

Final price $35                                                                  Final visits 4.8

Average price= (30+35)/2=$32.5                                     Average visits= (5.1+4.8)/2=4.95

Change in price 35-30=$5                                                Change in visits=4.8-5.1=-0.3

% change in price (5/32.5)*100=15.38 %change in visits (-0.3/4.95)*100= -6.061

Price Elasticity of Demand = (-6.061/15.38)=-0.394

Analysis

The calculations above indicate a negative change in Price Elasticity of Demand, whenever price is increased. From the calculations; it is evident that the higher the copayment, the larger the change in demand, whereby an increase of copayment from $10 to $15 indicates a considerable small elasticity of demand of -0.122. Increasing the copayments from $15 to $20 registers -1.80 price elasticity of demand. Moving forward to increase the copayments by $5 registers a cumulative increase in the change of elasticity of demand. Therefore, the analysis reveals that the smaller the percentage change in price, the higher the decrease in the percentage change in physician visits. Hence, an increase in copayment registers an increase in revenue for the insuring company.

b. Profitability of the Physician services department

Copayment increase $20

Change in price 20-15=$5                               Change in per capita visits=-6.0+5.7=-0.3

% change in price (5/17.5)*100=28.57              %change in visits (-0.3/5.85)*100= -5.128

Price Elasticity of Demand = (5.128/28.57)=-0.180

Costs before the increase

                                                                                                                    Costs after the increase

177322401406572.18328.822542502063404.04
279177423406576.14346.862746333464925.14
374888404406272.72331.282480889761408.16
473428407406373.26333.742450586160210.96
574535404406972.72331.282469195561118.7
675487432407077.76354.242674051561899.34
774222430407677.4352.62617067760862.04
875499452407681.36370.642798294961909.18
976300457408382.26374.742859266262566
1076033459408182.62376.382861730162347.06
1178832446408880.28365.722883043964642.24
1279755481408786.58394.423145696765399.1
1380243484409587.12396.883184684265799.26
1478993484410187.12396.883135074264774.26
1581227491409988.38402.623270361566606.14
1684219496410389.28406.723425355269059.58
17821775004112904103369257067385.14
18824564504115813693042626467613.92
1981100469412684.42384.583118943866502
2084211498413089.64408.363438840469053.02
2190133495412989.1405.93658498573909.06
22951205004129904103899920077998.4
2399865520412993.6426.44258243681889.3
2497752505413690.9414.14047910380156.64
2598713517413793.06423.944184838980944.66
Total costs2051687   1682383

Note: An increase in profitability is experienced after an increase in copayment prices to twenty dollars, cost decreases from 2051687 to 1682383.

An increase in copayment to $25 leads to a fall in costs; hence, to profitability; costs fall from 2051687 to 1553127

Copayments before the increase=11605*15=174075 (computed from the total number of visits)

Copayment after the increase=9516*20=190320 (computed from the total number of visits)

Company’s contributions before the increase=Total cost before the increase-copayments before the increase =2051687-174075=1877612

Companies contribution after the increase= 1682383-190320=1492063

Reduction in costs to the company after an increase from $15-$20=1877612-190320=385549

Apparently, from the calculations above, if the company increase copayments from 15-20 dollars, they stand to cut physician visits costs to the company by 385,549 dollars

Initial price $20                                                                initial visits 5.7

Final price $25                                                                  Final visits 5.4

Average price= (20+25)/2=$22.5                                     Average visits= (5.7+5.4)/2=5.55

Change in price 25-20=$5                                                Change in visits=5.7-5.4=-0.3

% change in price (5/22.5)*100=22.22                            %change in visits (-0.3/5.55)*100=5.41

Price Elasticity of Demand = (5.41/22.22)=-0.243

Costs before the increase                                                              Costs after the increase

WeekTotal Costs of Physician Visits# Visits# Employees(0.18*#visits)#visits-(0.243*#visits)#visits-(0.243*#visits)* Total Costs of Physician VisitsExpected costs
177322401406597.443303.5572347163458532.75
2791774234065102.789320.2112535334659936.99
374888404406298.172305.8282290284756690.22
473428407406398.901308.0992262309355585
574535404406998.172305.8282279489056423
6754874324070104.976327.0242468606157143.66
7742224304076104.49325.512416000356186.05
8754994524076109.836342.1642583304057152.74
9763004574083111.051345.9492639590957759.1
10760334594081111.537347.4632641865457556.98
11788324464088108.378337.6222661541859675.82
12797554814087116.883364.1172904015160374.54
13802434844095117.612366.3882940007260743.95
14789934844101117.612366.3882894208759797.7
15812274914099119.313371.6873019102061488.84
16842194964103120.528375.4723162187663753.78
17821775004112121.5378.53110399562207.99
18824564504115109.35340.652808863662419.19
19811004694126113.967355.0332879317661392.7
20842114984130121.014376.9863174636863747.73
21901334954129120.285374.7153377418768230.68
22951205004129121.5378.53600292072005.84
23998655204129126.36393.643931085975597.81
24977525054136122.715382.2853736912373998.26
25987135174137125.631391.3693863320874725.74
total20516871553127

An increase in copayment to $25 leads to a fall in costs hence to profitability; costs fall from 2051687 to 1553127

Copayments before the increase=11605*15=174075

Copayment after the increase=219625

Company’s contributions before the increase=Total cost before the increase-copayments before the increase =2051687-174075=1877612

Company’s contribution per visit before the increase=1877612/11605=161.75

Company’s contribution after the increase after the increase=total costs after the increase-copayments after the increase=1553127-219625=1333502=151.79

After the increase of copayments from 15 to 25 dollars, the company expected to realize a reduced cost of about $dollars per visit due the fall of visits and an increased copayment from employees. The company is expected to pay 1333502 for the physician’s visits from 1877612 to physicians; hence, realize a cost reduction of 544110

Q5 A table showing the percentage decrease of 18% in physician payment to match an increase of copayment from $15 to $20

WeekTotal Costs of Physician Visits# Visits# Employeesnew visitsnew costsb-g% dec
177322401406572.18328.822542502063404.0413917.9618
279177423406576.14346.862746333464925.1414251.8618
374888404406272.72331.282480889761408.1613479.8418
473428407406373.26333.742450586160210.9613217.0418
574535404406972.72331.282469195561118.713416.318
675487432407077.76354.242674051561899.3413587.6618
774222430407677.4352.62617067760862.0413359.9618
875499452407681.36370.642798294961909.1813589.8218
976300457408382.26374.7428592662625661373418
1076033459408182.62376.382861730162347.0613685.9418
1178832446408880.28365.722883043964642.2414189.7618
1279755481408786.58394.423145696765399.114355.918
1380243484409587.12396.883184684265799.2614443.7418
1478993484410187.12396.883135074264774.2614218.7418
1581227491409988.38402.623270361566606.1414620.8618
1684219496410389.28406.723425355269059.5815159.4218
17821775004112904103369257067385.1414791.8618
18824564504115813693042626467613.9214842.0818
1981100469412684.42384.5831189438665021459818
2084211498413089.64408.363438840469053.0215157.9818
2190133495412989.1405.93658498573909.0616223.9418
22951205004129904103899920077998.417121.618
2399865520412993.6426.44258243681889.317975.718
2497752505413690.9414.14047910380156.6417595.3618
2598713517413793.06423.944184838980944.6617768.3418
total20516871682383

The company by increasing the copayments from 15 to 20 dollars, they are expected to change affect demand by 0.18, which is the price elasticity of demand computed from the national statistics. Therefore for the company to realize a similar profitability without increasing the copayments, it will have to cut the amount paid to physicians.

(385549{reduction in cost to the company}/1877612[cost to the company before increase])*100=20.5%, therefore the company will have to cut the payments to physicians by 20.5%

Q5 A table showing the percentage decrease of 24.3% in physician paymentsto match an increase of copayment from $15 to $20

WeekTotal Costs of Physician Visits# Visits# Employeesnew visitsnew costsb-g% dec
WeekTotal Costs of Physician Visits# Visits# Employeesnew visitsnew costsb-g
177322401406597.443303.5572347163458532.7518789.2524.3
2791774234065102.789320.2112535334659936.9919240.0124.3
374888404406298.172305.8282290284756690.2218197.7824.3
473428407406398.901308.09922623093555851784324.3
574535404406998.172305.828227948905642318112.0124.3
6754874324070104.976327.0242468606157143.6618343.3424.3
7742224304076104.49325.512416000356186.0518035.9524.3
8754994524076109.836342.1642583304057152.7418346.2624.3
9763004574083111.051345.9492639590957759.118540.924.3
10760334594081111.537347.4632641865457556.9818476.0224.3
11788324464088108.378337.6222661541859675.8219156.1824.3
12797554814087116.883364.1172904015160374.5419380.4724.3
13802434844095117.612366.3882940007260743.9519499.0524.3
14789934844101117.612366.3882894208759797.719195.324.3
15812274914099119.313371.6873019102061488.8419738.1624.3
16842194964103120.528375.4723162187663753.7820465.2224.3
17821775004112121.5378.53110399562207.9919969.0124.3
18824564504115109.35340.652808863662419.1920036.8124.3
19811004694126113.967355.0332879317661392.719707.324.3
20842114984130121.014376.9863174636863747.7320463.2724.3
21901334954129120.285374.7153377418768230.6821902.3224.3
22951205004129121.5378.53600292072005.8423114.1624.3
23998655204129126.36393.643931085975597.8124267.224.3
24977525054136122.715382.2853736912373998.2623753.7424.3
25987135174137125.631391.3693863320874725.7423987.2624.3
total20516871553127

The company by increasing the copayments from 15 to 25 dollars, they are expected to change affect demand by 0.243, which is the price elasticity of demand computed from the national statistics. Therefore, for the company to realize a similar profitability without increasing the copayments, it will have to cut the amount paid to physicians.

(544110{reduction in cost to the company before increase}/1877612[cost to the company before increase])*100=20.5%, therefore the company will have to cut the payments to physicians by 28.9788%

A Shaman

The Pack

A shaman can be described as an individual who manages to acquire some access and influence in the spirits world, which is mostly achieved when the individual is in a state of trance during dances and rituals, healing process, or divination practices. Shamanism is concerned with the spirits of nature and a shaman is believed to interact with the spirits of elements, ancestors, and those of superior transpersonal (godlike) beings who act as helpers and guiders to humanity.

Most of the shamans experience visions or dreams that reveal certain messages to them. In so doing, the shaman may be offered guidance by spiritual guides whom they meet in the spiritual world. These spirits may either be with a shaman at all times or just visit them when they are in a state of trance. The spirit guide and energizes the shaman and enables them to travel to the spiritual dimension where the process of healing takes place by the shaman restoring the lost parts of the soul to the sick person. It has also been said that the entranced person is capable of cleaning the excess energies in a possessed individual thereby returning them to a normal condition.

Shamans have also been described as mediators. This is drawn from the belief that the shaman can communicate with superior spirits and those of deceased people. The communication benefits the community by revealing solutions to difficult issues, alleviating unrest caused by a natural phenomenon, and delivering gifts and advice from the spirit world.  As opposed to priests, shamans are not engaged full time in travelling into the spirit world but acquire this status only in some events and rituals such as dances, and meditation.