Bluetooth and Network Interface

2.0. Literature Review

2.1.            Scientific Background

According to Abedi, Bhaskar and Chung (2013),accessing networks and services with increased mobility and flexibility, wireless networks are a fast growing and popular technology. Some of the benefits of wireless networks include reduction of cable restrictions, formation of dynamic communication, and deploying with ease. Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, and UWB are examples of short-range standards for wireless communication, which correspond IEEE 802.15.1, 802.11 a/b/g, 802.15.4, and 802.15.3. Actually, IEEE defines physical layers, and Mac address for the above-mentioned wireless protocols for a range of 10 to 100 meters of operation. Bluetooth and Network Interface

ZigBee and Bluetooth have an advantage of low power consumption and Wi-Fi utilizes low normalized energy. In addition, ZigBee and Bluetooth possess a larger transmission data and time coding efficiency attributed to the payload size.). Mac addresses are unique identifiers that are utilized for varying categories of communication networks and the largest part of the IEEE 802 technologies.

Bluetooth and ZigBee are most efficient in terms of power consumption and UWB and Wi-Fi consume less normalized energy. Furthermore, ZigBee and Bluetooth have bigger transmission time and data coding efficiency associated to the data payload size (Porter et al., 2011). MAC addresses are unique identifies and are used for various type of communication networks and most of IEEE 802 network technologies.

Currently, most of the smart-phones and other digital devices utilize Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies for communications. According to Blogg, Semler, Hingorani and Troutbeck (2010), Bluetooth technologies have been expansively used, whereby they are applied in areas such as the motor industry; for instance, there exists several capturing Bluetooth in city roads and motorways.  The devices have also been applied in estimating the vehicle’s travel time. Brennan et al. (2010) argue that the ability to track Bluetooth devices is the primary motivation to their increase use. In cases involving communication of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth communication is the initial step to detect available devices in the detection zone. Wang et al. (2014) note that there exist some devices, which are created for detecting communicating devices in a zone, however, these devices possess some limiting factors such as scanning number of ID capturing in a similar period and scanning frequency. Bluetooth and Network Interface

2.2.            Previous Research

2.2.1.      Overview of the Bluetooth Technology

Abedi, Bhaskar and Chung (2013) define a Bluetooth as technology standard, which is wireless, for exchanging data over considerable short distances (utilizing short-wavelength radio transmissions that ranges from 2400-2480 MHz in the ISM band) from mobile and fixed devices, creating PANs (personal Area Networks) with huge levels of security. Phan and Mingard (2012)note that a master Bluetooth device has a capability of communicating with up to seven devices in a piconet (an ad-lib network of computers utilizing Bluetooth technology); however, not every device can achieve the maximum.

In such a case (network);by agreement devices can switch roles, whereby a master can become a slave and vice versa. For instance, whena headset initiates a connection to a phone; hence, starts as a master because of initiating the connection. However, the device may subsequently assume slave tasks by preference. Martin, Grupen, Muñoz and Srivastava (2014) also define a Bluetooth as a Wireless’s PAN industrial standard, that is designed for low consumption of power and short distance operations among embedded and mobile devices. Blendin et al. (2014) explain that since RF type of communication protocol is involved, the line of sight for the communicating devices is never required. Further, discovering surrounding Bluetooth services and devices is simplified, compared to the Ethernet-based Wi-Fi networks, by reducing connections’ establishment process to a streamlined paired device setup(Cabero et al.  2016). Bluetooth and Network Interface

Wright and Cache (2015) explains that a Bluetooth enhances data exchanges and connection management among devices within close proximity and requiring low bandwidth data links, with techniques such as Bluetooth tracking being used for gathering mobile objects positions. In addition, information exchange between Bluetooth terminals is possible and the access point can offer an interface to a mobile network. Therefore, Cabero et al. (2014) also note that Bluetooth tracking possesses a competitive advantage compared to other detection mechanisms like IR detectors and surveillance cameras, whereby, valuable domain insights can be acquired through analysis of such data. Therefore, Chilipirea, Petre, Dobre and van Steen (2016) also note that the possibility of uniquely identifying every Bluetooth device using its MAC address, the technology (Bluetooth) enhances the level of interaction from the conventional face-to-face interactions, whereby, online social networking has added the capability of meeting people and establishing a friendship.

2.2.2.      Overview of MAC Address

A Media Access Control (MAC) address is an identifier, which is unique and assigned to network interfaces to enable communications on the physical part of the network. Brennan et al. (2010) indicate that MAC addresses are applicable to numerous technologies including the IEEE 802 network protocols such as Ethernet. In the OSI reference model, MAC addresses are utilized in the Media Access Control protocol sub layer. The NIC (Network Interface Card) manufacturer assigns the devices a MAC address, whereby, the unique identifier is stored in the ROM (Read Only Memory) or any other firmware.

The address is referred to as the burned-in address, if assigned by the manufacturer, and encodes the registered number of such manufacturer. MAC address can also be referred to as EHA, (Ethernet Hardware Address), physical or hardware address. In a network node, there may exist multiple NICs; hence, will have a MAC address of every NIC, whereby a Bluetooth can be utilized to track absence or presence of a person within a specific block.

2.2.3.      Wi-Fi and MAC Address

According to Vanhoef et al. (2016) Wi-Fi technology is the primary solution for medium range communications, which is embedded in smart objects. Specifically, a big number of smart-phones have a Wi-Fi network interface, which, enhance a cheapest and fastest internet access compared to GSM technologies. Currently, Wi-Fi features strong authentication/encryption techniques that ensure data is securely transmitted via a wireless channel. However, recent studies indicate that Devices with Wi-Fi capabilities are a threat to the owner’s privacy. For example, previously accessed network names can be found unencrypted in management frames, whereby they can be utilized to access private information of the device owners like social links.

Additionally, in cases where the payload of a Wi-Fi frame can be encrypted, the header of such devices is transmitted in clear. Therefore, the device’s MAC address can be established and utilized to identify the unique owner of the device. According to Chilipirea, Petre, Dobre and van Steen (2016), Wi-Fi emission is not limited to the time, which the device is connected to a network. Wang et al. (2014) also note that due to the enabled of the active mode of service discovery in a big number of devices, Wi-Fi interfaces periodically broadcast frames having their MAC address. Therefore, a device having its Wi-Fi turned on, works as a real wireless beacon by periodically advertising a unique identifier in clear (Casetti et al,  2015). Ni, Zhang and Souryal (2011) insistthat the wireless beacon (For instance, smart phones with Wi-Fi turned on) enhance radio frequency tracking. Regarding the RF tracking technique, some hackers and researchers have began to demonstrate systems of that kind to increase privacy awareness or to gather mobility data-sets. Bluetooth and Network Interface

Yassin, and Rachid (2015) note that besides the scientific demonstration and works, RF-tracking technique has been widely applied in commercial application. For instance, RF tracking is widely utilized in traffic monitoring application, whereby, the technology gives information; for instance, point-to-point traffic intensity and travel time. Radio-Frequency tracking is utilized in monitoring people activities in shopping centers and retail stores. Yassin and Rachid (2015)indicatethat RF-tracking systems gather information about clients’ flows and their habits of shopping Guo, Yu, Zhou and Zhang, (2014), also note that since radio frequency enable tracking of individuals utilizing on a unique identifier, the link to an actual identity is directly unavailable. Several technique of accessing the actual owner exist, whereby, they are in two categories, Whereby, one of the techniques focus of a specific target and the other focus on a Wi-Fi channel while following a target in a public space then identify the MAC address of the target through analysis of the crowd.

One the techniques that target a unique device in a network are the Wi-Fi replay attack that impersonates the network that the target has previously connected to in order to establish its MAC address. Stalker attack is another approach for identifying a target by focusing on a public network and later scanning for the MAC address of such a device.

2.2.4.      Techniques for Detecting and Monitoring Devices in a network-Location

According to Karr and Dupray (2015),techniques for monitoring the location of target via network or device based mechanisms, whereby, device based techniques use a software that logs and reports the location of a device utilizing Wi-Fi or GPS positioning data. On the other hand, networks based techniques locate a device by conducting calculations on to and from a device radio signals. After establishing the location of a device, the coordinates of the location are transferred to a computer or a mobile interface, which can present visualizations of the past, current, and predicted locations, including other features such as paired satellite proximity and imagery alerts, and fenced tracking. location monitoring is conducted without the consent of the target and is a very effective tool for establishing deviations from routine, daily activities and interpersonal interactions. Bluetooth and Network Interface

2.2.4.1.            A Devices Based Approach

Some of the existing mobile devices detection tools include the Hinton Abis probe that establishes the location of a mobile phone by monitoring its signal links with different base stations utilizing the Abis signal. The device provides the Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications to identify the distance of a device from three base stations that it will be communicating with. Privacy International (n.d.) notes that the tool can enhance location-based advertising but critics to the technology argue that it is a mechanism for converting a mobile phone into a location tracking device or system.

Nashiyama and Kato (2014) Hinton Abis Probe device is based on the possibility of identifying the distance of a mobile device from a base station, whereby the  strength of a signal on a device correspond to the approximated distance to a base station tower that is most near to it. In a similar manner, the base station of a subsystem, which is a network of towers that are interconnected, estimates and logs the location of a device using multilateration technique. Karr and Dupray (2015) note that mobile phones keep sending signals to a subsystem; hence, maintain a connection with the network. The nearest base station tower collects the signal travelling at the speed of light with slightly varying times. Utilizing the locations of the towers that are known and the difference of time between each tower that receives the signal; identifying the location of the device can be done within a certain range of accuracy.

According to Privacy International (n.d )the accuracy of the identifying devices improves as the number of base stations increases within the location of the mobile device, which is normally the case in the urban centers. Every time a device performs an action such as using data, sending a message, or making a call, and the device makes periodic movement within the network, location data is logged. Therefore, anybody with the access of a mobile phone location data can identify the location of the user utilizing unique identifiers. Bluetooth and Network Interface

According to Nashiyama and Kato (2014) the concept above can be used to geographically locate or track targets, whereby a blind call is made to such a device ensure that the owner does not realize that the call was made, since it does not make the call vibrate or ring. However, the location of the device can be tracked, irrespective of the movements within the network, with a one-meter accuracy.

Yassin and Rachid (2015) explain that there exist two unique numbers which identify mobile devices that the IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) and IMEI (International Mobile Station Equipment Identity). IMEI is attached to the mobile device and is unique for every device, while the IMSI is SIM card based. The IMEI and the IMSI are communicated to the network provider, whereby some technologies can be utilized to monitor the movements corresponding to both of the numbers, to identify suspicious activities such swapping of SIM cards.

2.2.5.      Hybrid Location Monitoring Techniques

Karr and Dupray (2015) note that technologies for monitoring device locations are mostly packaged as an all in one solution, which utilizes numerous monitoring techniques, whereby, the default settings on the largest number of smartphones allow simultaneous tracking of the device by these strategies; hence, significantly improve the location accuracy. Nashiyama and Kato (2014) note that even with Wi-Fis, GPS, and other applications, which can establish the location of a device, disabled, tracking is still possible since the device is continuously communicating with the network. Yassin and Rachid (2015) indicate that the only solution to prevent tracking is by ensuring that there exist no signal transmissions by switching off the device and ensuring that malware that make phones appear shutoff are not present, or utilizing a Faraday case cage. However, Wright, and Cache (2015) argues that the current advances in mobile technology, renders the techniques impossible; hence, the only techniques to prevent tracking legal and policy means. Bluetooth and Network Interface

According to Privacy International (n.d.), Wi-Fi positioning is also a technique for identifying a device location, the method utilizes information that access point broadcasts; for instance, wireless routers. Every wireless access point possesses a unique identifier that is known as the Media Access Control Address. Schauer, Werner and Marcus (2014) indicate that the commercial databases compile MAC addresses including their SSID (Service Set Identifiers), which is a string made up of 32 characters that identify the access point, and locations. Further, devices that are Wi-Fi enabled perform a registration of every surrounding SSID, including the strength of their signals (Vanhoef et al. 2016,). Establishing the device location is done by conducting a comparison of the existing SSID data to the MAC address database.

According too, Schauer, Werner and Marcus (2014), Applications on a device utilize a combination of GPS and Wi-Fi positioning data to establish a mobile device’s location. Whereby depending on the application’s privacy policy, the location data can be sent to a third party for profit or monitoring reasons.

After the collection of the location data via a device or a network based technique, such data is sent a software platform, which can conduct analysis. Ficco, Palmieri and Castiglione (2014) explain that the software can generate a report on the daily trends of commuting, predicted travels, and areas of interest, of the target based on the tracking record. The location of the target is always maintained; hence, ensuring that investigators can access all areas visited for two years. In addition, a ‘geo-fence’, which is a virtual border can be created whereby every a notification is sent whenever the target crosses the border. In a similar manner, sending of notifications is possible whenever, two targets meet. Bluetooth and Network Interface

2.2.6.      Standard Bluetooth Pairing Techniques

The primary objective for of standard pairing is to enhance two Bluetooth devices to create a symmetric initialization to authenticate each other and create a link key. The link key, which is created in the process of standard pairing, is derived utilizing the initializing key. A number of ways are specified through which a link key can be generated, whereby on of the device’s unit key can be utilized as the key link, whereby it is sent to the other devices encrypted by the initialization key. Alternatively, both of the devices can create stochastic random numbers and exchange the numbers, whereby, the initializing key encrypts them. After exchange of the random numbers, they are utilized to generate the key for the link. According to Schauer, Werner and Marcus (2014), in some scenarios occurring in the latest version of the specification the key for the link is created before the authentication process is performed, while in others the key link is generated after the process of authentication both devices is done utilizing the initializing key. Bluetooth and Network Interface

According to Chang and Shmatikov (2007),both of the technique suffer a similar drawback, that is, attackers can impersonate a Bluetooth device, that is, enhanced by a possibility of an offline guessing attack exploiting the low-entropy secret, which is used to create the initializing key.Communication between two Bluetooth devices involves a low-entropysecret that Fis supposed to memorable to human beings and is normally a four digit PIN. For instance, if, devices A and B are communicating; hence, sharing their addresses, then communication begins with the initializing device generating a stochastic nonceand sending it to the non-initializing device. For instance, assuming A is the initializing device and B the ‘non-initializing’ device, then A starts the protocol by generating the nonce and sending it to B. A and B then proceed to generate the initializing key, which is a function of the nonce,Bluetooth address for device A, and the PIN. Both of the devices then proceed to execute a two-way challenge to authenticate each other, whereby A begins the process, whereby, B sends a random value to A, which upon receiving it, computes a response in form of a function of the initializing key, and sends to B for verification. Finally, after B verifies the Response from A, the process is repeated in a reversed role.

According to Chang and Shmatikov (2007), the drawback of the technique is that if someone gets the PIN, then access to both of the devices is possible, thereby, violating the authentication and secrecy of both devices. The violation is possible because such an attacker or a person by guessing the PIN will have access to all the parameter required to generate the initialization key. As indicated previously also, the PIN is a low-entropy secret; hence, be easily guessed by attackers, thereby, making the mode of communication insecure. In addition, impersonating a device only requires the knowledge of the initializing key and the Bluetooth public address. Phan and Mingard(2012) insist that although, latest techniques such as simple pairing mechanism that do not utilize the low-entropy secrets, or any form of secrets in the authentication can assist in eliminating the problem, there exist a big number of manufacturers using the standard pairing techniques; hence, a large number of devices using the risky mechanism. Bluetooth and Network Interface

2.2.7.      Crowd Scanning Embedded Devices’ Address in a Network

Crowd scanning embedded devices is a technique for identifying the identity of a device owner in a public network. One such technique is the stalker approach mentioned above, which according to Mathieu (2013) focuses on a public network then scans the network to establish the owner of a certain MAC address. Identifying a device associated to particular individual, the typical solution is isolating the person, whereby the distance between the monitorer and the target is small compared to the distance between the monitoring and the rest of the network user. However, Mathieu (2013) notes that the technique can raise suspicion; thereby, compromising the requirement of stealthiness in such operations. Therefore, an approach involving a group of intersection attack, which involves considering a number of distinct sets of individuals and the study of their intersection, whereby, the individuals’ intersection is supposed to match the identifiers of the collected devices. Specifically, when the case where intersection is reduced to a single element, direct deduction of the target’s identifier is achievable. However, Blogg, Semler, Hingorani and Troutbeck (2010) note that a clear isolation and identification of a set of individuals can be problematic in practice especially due to the changing nature of a set of individuals in social places covered by the monitorer. Therefore, the only means of maintaininga person in the monitored area, with the rest of the group changing with time, is by stalking.

2.2.8.      Benefits and Challenges of Crowd Scanning Embedded Devices’ Address

Challenges

One of the challenges associated with scanning embedded devices to identify a particular device is that addresses such as MAC address might not lead to the targeted device due to varying reasons. According to Piyare and Tazil (2011), MAC addresses may not always lead to the targeted device because in some instances, either erroneously or intentionally, Manufacturers of devices allocate a single address to more than one device. In such a case, using MAC address that is allocated to several devices might lead to a device, which is not the desired one.

Litomisky (2011) also notes that there exist technologies such as MAC spoofing, which can be used to change the MAC address assigned by the manufacturer of a networked device or a network interface. Although the MAC address is hard-coded on the hardware of a device, MAC spoofing can be used make the operating system read a wrong address, in most cases which determined by the user. Bluetooth and Network Interface

Litomisky (2011) also indicates that some manufacturers duplicate MAC addresses on different cards and ship them to different parts of USA to avoid chances of those devices existing in a similar network. In case such devices appear in a similar local area network, a problem is experienced in in communication due to the high number of collisions. However, such devices that have similar MAC address if separated by one or more routers; communication will happen properly as the devices cannot identify each other. Identifying a particular device in such, a scenario can be cumbersome and sometime may be impossible.

According to Mathieu (2013); the dynamic nature of social places where the monitoring can happen is also a huge challenge to public scanning, whereby in practice a set of individuals keep changing in such settings. The only technique of ensuring that a target remains in the monitored section is by stalking the person, whereby the monitorer follows the target in public. However, as noted earlier. The technique may raise suspicion; hence, affecting the stealthiness of the operation. The technique to minimize suspicion is by ensuring that the distance between the target and the monitoring is not too close for the target to realize and not too far for the individual to the move out of the monitored area.

According to Davidson (2016), the ability to compromise communication authentication and secrecy of two devices in a network is another drawback to identification of devices owners’ details using the crowd scanning technique. For instance, due to low-entropy secrets used in communication of Bluetooth devices, an attacker can easily guess the pin and gain access to all the parameters, such as the device address, sufficient to generate the initialization key; hence, can lead to Bluetooth impersonification. In such a scenario, the secrecy and authentication of both of the communicating devices is compromised (Farb et al. 2015). Bluetooth and Network Interface

However, Abedi, Bhaskar and Chung (2013)note that the challenge is both a weakness and a strength to the crowd scanning mechanism, whereby, the ability to gain access to communication devices enables monitorers to track such devices and conduct the process of identifying the target through access of the devices address and identify malicious activities as well. The possibility can be a drawback due to the possibility of other attackers tracking activities in such networks; hence, might detect the activities of the monitorerand can create inexistent communication links, which might be misleading to the monitorer.

The legal, policy, and ethics issue is also another challenge to monitoring, whereby in many countries and within various organizations including manufacturers, tracking is unacceptable. According to citron (2015), in some countries, tracking can only be done by particular security personnel and must be anchored in the law, while in other countries the law is unclear about tracking. Since tracking also reveals information, which might be in some cases sensitive, about other innocent people, who are not targeted by the monitoring, the activities raise many ethical concerns. Bluetooth and Network Interface

Benefits

According to Mathieu (2013), one of the benefits of crowd, scanning to identify the addresses of embedded devices is the ability to minimize the target suspicion; hence, increase stealthiness of the process. Identification the target is conducted by stalking the target due to the dynamic nature of network sets in social places. In this case, the monitorer stalks the target by following it, by maintaining a close distance to ensure that the individual does not get out of the monitored spaces and ensuring that the distance is not too close for the target to suspect of the ongoing activity.

Crowd scanning also increases the chances of identifying the address of a target by targeting a group of devices involving a comparably high number of communications than targeting an individual. Most probably, these communications generate sufficient information to reveal the identity of the owner of the targeted device. With such kind of information, the monitorer can identify suspicious activities in a network due to the consideration of the network. Bluetooth and Network Interface

According to Davidson (2016), users can use software to alter the IMEI code; hence, make identification of a particular difficult or in some cases impossible due to the ability of finding devices sharing a similar IMEI code in the same network. In such cases, crowd-scanning techniques offer an alternative to the identification of such devices since they do not involve the codes rather they use the MAC addresses and the Wi-Fi. However, cheng et al. (2017) notes that the crowd scanning techniques are also affected by cases of MAC address tampering hence are used just as an alternative when the targeting methods fail.

Yassin, and Rachid (2015) also insist that crowd scanning techniques are cheaper and simple to execute compared to targeting methods due to the considerable small monitoring area compared to some of the device targeting mechanisms, which involve large areas of a network and complicated calculations. Cheng et al. (2017) explains that cloud scanning techniques use small monitoring areas of networks social places and uses MAC addresses and Wi-Fi to identify devices in such connections, while some targeting mechanisms involveat least three base stations and complicated calculations to identify the distance of the device; hence, the owner.

Finally, according to Joh and Ryoo (2015),crowd scanning is preferred to targeting techniques due to the latter relying on other technologies such as GSM to establish the location of device. Therefore, such techniques rely on the accuracy of those devices to identify the location of a device. Bluetooth and Network Interface

2.3.            Stolen Devices’ Statistics

A research by IDG and Lookout revealed that about 50 percent victims of phone theft would part with five hundred dollar to recover their devices (FCC, 2015). In addition, a third of such victims would pay a thousand dollars to get back their devices. Further sixty-eight percent of the poll participants indicated that they would risk some sought of danger to have their handset back. According to most of the participants, what is more valuable is not the device, but rather the data in the phones, which includes applications, videos, information, and music among others.

Lookout and IDG (2013)note that some smartphones are increasingly attractive to thieves, whereby, in 2013, about three million phones were stolen in the US. According to consumer insights, since 2011, smartphones theft has been on the rise, whereby in Los Angeles, a 26 percent increase was registered. In addition, in 2013, smartphone robberies increased by twenty-three percent in San Francisco, while an eighteen percent of grand larcenies in New York involved apple products. Bluetooth and Network Interface

3.          Summary/Significance/Rationale of Research

The literature review shows that, various techniques exist for approximating the location of devices in a network. Some of the techniques are device based, while others are hybrid techniques involving elements of the device and the network. One of the device oriented Hinton Abis probe technique,which utilizes signals form the device plus the nearest base station to calculate the distance of from the base station. Some of these techniques can be used to detect and track devices in a network; however, they may be complex, costly, and sometime in efficient due to relying on other technologies and involving considerable larger network zones.

With smartphone theft cases increasing day by day,alternative techniques are required to identify such devices, easily, and involving considerable costs. Such techniques include targeting and crowd scanning Bluetooth and MAC addresses in a network to establish information about the target. Targeting approaches have a disadvantage of creating suspicion to the target; hence, crowd-scanning techniques are the best option to help resolve the stolen smartphone issue. However, crowd-scanning technology possesses several challenges, which need more study to ensure an efficient stolen smart identification technique. Bluetooth and Network Interface

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Stojmenovic, I., 2014,‘Machine-to-machine communications with in-network data aggregation, processing, and actuation for large-scale cyber-physical systems’, IEEE Internet of Things Journal1(2), pp.122-128.

Tuncer, S. and Tuncer, T., 2015, September. Indoor localization with bluetooth technology using artificial neural networks. In Intelligent Engineering Systems (INES), 2015 IEEE 19th International Conference on (pp. 213-217). IEEE.

Vanhoef, M., Matte, C., Cunche, M., Cardoso, L.S. and Piessens, F., 2016, May. Why MAC Address Randomization is not Enough: An Analysis of Wi-Fi Network Discovery Mechanisms. In Proceedings of the 11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security (pp. 413-424). ACM.

Vergara-Laurens, I.J., Mendez, D. and Labrador, M.A., 2014, March. Privacy, quality of information, and energy consumption in participatory sensing systems. In Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom), 2014 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 199-207). IEEE.

Wang, Y., Liu, J., Chen, Y., Gruteser, M., Yang, J. and Liu, H 2014, September. E-eyes: device-free location-oriented activity identification using fine-grained wifi signatures. In Proceedings of the 20th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking (pp. 617-628). ACM.

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Weight Training

Weight Training

The research paper documents the findings of a study conducted to verify the impacts of increasing the volume of weight training from single to three sets on muscular strength and body composition. Clearly, the study identifies an area of conflict, which involves the benefits of increasing the volume in training with regard to body composition and strength. However, the scope of the study seems inadequate or shallow because it fails to capture critical elements of weight training. For instance, the study squarely focuses on the impacts of volume to body composition and strength but does not include other controversial areas of weight training, such as the impacts of increasing the training intensity, using varying volume or the appropriate balance between the two aspects of training, on the trainer. Therefore, this study compromises the fundamental principle of generality hence is inappropriate to satisfactorily inform theentire spectrum of weight training.

            The fact that intensity and volume are inversely proportional leads to a wide range of unanswered questions especially regarding the effects of increasing volume or intensity on body strength and composition, as well as the best correct combination between the two. However, the issue of definitions in this subject generates immense controversy such that a myriad of studies in this area have undertook varying focuses hence led to a wide range of inferences, which cannot properly respond to the demands of weight training field. Thus, the narrow scope adopted in the study can be justified by the increased amount of controversy in the area of weight training.

Notably, the study excellently responds to the identifiedresearch gap, however much narrow, by concluding that increasing volume does not have tangible benefits to body strength and composition.In addition, the paper apparently articulates the procedure, and elements, as well as assumptions used to facilitate the study, which enhance a logical flow of the study.For instance, the article includes the sample sizes and categories utilized, and a detailed justification of their inclusion in the study. Therefore, the findings and conclusions can be utilized, with extreme caution, in the area regarding volume in weight training and its impacts on strength and composition.

Works Cited

Baker, Julien S. “Strength and Body Composition Changes in Recreationally Strength-Trained Individuals: Comparison of One Versus Three Sets Resistance-Training Programmes.” Hindawi, 8 Sept. 2013, www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/615901/.

Building Information Systems and Project Management

Data Communication

Pull Communication

            Pull communication is one of the most effective techniques used in managing projects where a large number of audience requires information access. This method is highly applicable in the development of the project manager software because different groups and departments will be involved in creating different components of the application. All the groups and departments involved in this project will require a lot of training to to ensure that they come up with components that are functioning correctly (Schwalbe, 2004). Information Systems and Projects

            Corporate intranet will be used to enhance all the participants in the project development access the training material again after actual training has taken place. In a similar manner, project artifacts, like decision trees and precedence diagrams used by other people in their projects will be provided to the developers. This method is the most appropriate because this type information will be accessed only when required (Schwalbe, 2004). Information Systems and Projects

            Push Communication

            The project in some instances will require some sought of communication whereby feedback will not be required. After every brainstorming workshop, the meeting notes will be sent to the participants for future references. Similarly, reports will be sent to the stakeholders such as the Brand and the business development manager to keep them informed of the project creation progress. Press releases also will be used to communicate project development progress to the stakeholders (Schwalbe, 2004).

            One of the common scenarios where this type of communication will be applied is communicating a bug fix to a developer who has left for the day and cannot reached through a cell phone. In this case, voicemail and emails which are forms of push communication can be used to communicate the bug fix.  Information Systems and Projects

Project Planning Methodologies

            Project planning is crucial in project management to ensure that the project is developed within the specified timeline and budget. The project plan assists in holding the project together hence making it a success. From the scheme the project manager can easily assign tasks, monitor costs and progress, communicate the status of the project to the stakeholders and produce reports. Various techniques complement each other and when utilized together, assist in the creation of comprehensive plan scheme that covers every aspect of the project. These methods include; Brainstorming and Gantt charts (“Project management: concepts,” 2016). Information Systems and Projects

Brainstorming

             Brainstorming is very applicable in this project as it is a creative process that is designed to enhance lateral and random thinking. This technique will assist in raising concerns and identifying issues that are not very straight forward. The method will also be very useful in developing ideas that can reduce costs and improve efficiency. Unlike the general approach to project management whereby strict procedures have to be followed, Brainstorming employs a different approach whereby thinking outside the box is encouraged. This fact about brainstorming must will be highly emphasized to eliminate unnecessary confusion (“Project management: concepts,” 2016).

            The project management team selection will be done carefully while using this approach because people who are used to disciplined methods can have problems with brainstorming. People without preconceived ideas about the topic will be considered because most probably, individuals with no experience about the project will ask a fundamental question that can change everybody’s way of thinking. To prevent the discussions from spinning out of the expected limits, strong leaders will be chosen to head the project discussion sessions (“Project management: concepts,” 2016). Information Systems and Projects

Gantt Charts

            Gantt charts will be utilized for project scheduling and monitoring of tasks, showing the expenditure and costs at all the stages of the project for report development and communication of progress. The charts will use one diagram to show activities and costs over time in an easy way. One reason for using this approach is the availability of many software tools that can be used to create the diagrams (“Project management: concepts,” 2016).

             Implementing a Gantt chart will involve breaking down the project into individual tasks that will then be listed in rows on the tables. Every job will consist of a timeline that stretches up to the deadline. The function blocks will be color coded where necessary, for instance, to indicate tasks delivered by different groups such as the department or external subcontractors. The progress line will overlay the time blocks showing the amount of work done on a particular task and the critical milestones. The milestones will be annotated to indicate relevance. The actual and estimated costs will also be added at the end of a time block (“Project management: concepts,” 2016).

            Updating of the chart regularly will assist in the tracking of progress because they will cover the days, weeks, and months of the entire project. The maps will also show the estimated schedule versus the actual schedule. The Gantt charts will also enhance easy updating in case an aspect of the project changes like removing or adding tasks or altering of the deadlines (“much, much,” 2015). Information Systems and Projects

Project Budget

1Training & Research $100000
2  Design and Review $80000
3Coding  $12000
 Debugging $10000 
 Testing  $90000
 Refactoring $10000
 implementation $20000
 Total 250000
4Graphic Art and Database $70000
5Packaging and Documentation $20000
6Implementation $80000
 Total $600000

Collaboration Technology and e-Commerce Techniques

Collaboration Technology

            Collaborative technology will be necessary for this project to assist sharing of information between the system’s users such as the business development manager and the brand manager. The system in development will require a lot of exchange of information regarding pictures and texts. The collaboration technology that will be used in the project manager software can also be employed in the process of developing the system to share information between the project development teams. Use of these tools this way will help assist in predicting how they work in the project manager software. Some of the tools that can work very well in this project are discussed below (Raskin, 2008).

            Wikis. These are easy to create web pages that are editable and allow editing of the content by multiple individuals provided they are authorized by the wiki owner to do so. Wikis will enable and facilitate collaborative creation of documents such as spreadsheets, presentation and text documents. In the process of the project development, wikis will be used by the project management team to share progress and necessary materials from different departments. The tool will ensure that each staff or team member offer a unique support by checking what is required and what is already available. The wikis will also enhance collaborative editing of the project documents such as reports (Raskin, 2008).

             In the project manager software, the wikis will play a very critical role in improving performance. The business development manager will upload photos on the wikis and invite other people aware of the location to add information about the site. The brand managers will then use the wikis to view information about a location visited by the business development director. Wikis will also be utilized by the brand manager to specify the basics of the most preferred locations such that the business development teams will know which areas to prioritize (Raskin, 2008). Information Systems and Projects

            Social Bookmarking. Social bookmarking allows the users to bookmark or search, sort, save, share and easily access web pages that create value to the users. One benefit of social bookmarking is accessibility from any browser or computer. This tool will be used by the project management team to share necessary information for the project development. For the project manager software, the tool will be very useful to the business development managers in the generation of information on locations that they visit. Once they get the details of the place they are visiting, they will request for more information from the social media users about the location via this tool. The social media users will have to bookmark or save the relevant information sources where the business development managers can find them for analysis (Raskin, 2008).

E-Commerce Techniques

Universal Analytics. Universal Analytics is a crucial tool in evaluating the behavior of the website users. The Enhanced Commerce reporting feature enhances creating of a very clear view for the site users.  The User Behavior Analysis reports will assist in identifying where the users enter, leave, and re-enter the funnel across multiple sessions. Since the project manager software will involve the users and many processes, tracking of their journeys is very critical in identifying where they might be facing problems when using the system. From enhanced commerce reporting users who actively participate in the system will be identified and analyzed hence the reliability of the responses can also be quickly evaluated (Raskin, 2008).

            Mobile Optimization. The project manager software will involve the business development manager moving from one region to another. He will be required to update the system in real time whenever he (manager) visits a new location. In this regard, the manager will have to carry a device that can enhance updating of the system, whereby a mobile gadget will be most suitable. Besides, the software will involve other people such as the social media users who are known to prefer the mobile devices. Hence, Mobile optimization will increase the number of users and improve their interaction with the system (Raskin, 2008). Information Systems and Projects

Internal and External Security Threats

            The project manager software operation will involve both internal and external users hence will be exposed to internal and external threats. Internal users will include the brand and the business development managers among other employees. External users involved in the system include the social media users (Bertino, 2016).

Internal Threats

            Malicious Cyber-attack. Employees with access to the system can also become a threat. Cases of employing stealing data or introducing programs on the system to wreak havoc are very common (Bertino, 2016). Social engineering. Employees who have passwords to the system can be manipulated by hackers and crackers such that they reveal the login details. There is no any need for attackers to create hackers programs to get the details if they can get them from the employees (Bertino, 2016).

External Threats

            Viruses. These are malicious programs that can wreak havoc on the system. Since the systems implement collaborative technology such as the wikis and social bookmarking, viruses can be introduced on these platforms by external users as new information (Bertino, 2016).  Hacking. The project manager software will be performing most of the functions online. All applications that exist on a network are at risk of being attacked by hackers and crackers with the intention of stealing information or wreaking havoc on the system. The attackers can be competitors or any other person (Bertino, 2016).

Security and Threat Prevention Technologies

            The internal threats to the system will require the organization to implement some measures that do not need any technology. Some of the actions include ensuring that the employees with access to the network are trustworthy and this is achieved by evaluating their loyalty to the company regularly. Educating the user about computer security is another necessary measure to ensure that they can recognize sources of danger (Kumar, K Soni, & K Jain, 2015). Information Systems and Projects

External threats

            Firewalls. These are hardware or software that are designed to keep attackers and unintended visits from private networks. The firewalls choose which visitors to allow or deny access. Implementation of firewalls will assist in keeping suspected visitors away hence reduce the risk of attack. Anti-virus software. These are software that detects, prevent and remove adware, spyware, computer virus and Trojan horses (Kumar, K Soni, & K Jain, 2015). Active antivirus software will assist in preventing viruses from entering the system, and if they enter, they will be able to enhance their removal (Kumar, K Soni, & K Jain, 2015).

Gantt Chart

ActivityDec, 2016Jan, 2017Feb, 2017March, 2017April, 2017
User requirement Verification         
System specification         
System Design         
Coding         
System integration         
System Testing         
Implementation         
Maintenance         
Documentation            

References

Kumar, S., K Sony, M., & K Jain, D. (2015). Cyber security threats in synchrophasor system in wams. International Journal of Computer Applications115(8), 17-22. doi:10.5120/20172-2355

Project management: concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications. (2016). doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-0196-1

Raskin, G. (2008). Packaging assembly techniques. Handbook of Fiber Optic Data Communication, 219-238. doi:10.1016/b978-012374216-2.50012-0

Schwalbe, K. (2004). Project Management Techniques. The Internet Encyclopedia. doi:10.1002/047148296x.tie145

Much, much, more on wbss, networks, and gantt charts. (2015). A Step-by-Step Guide for Planning,   Executing, and Managing Projects, 127-160. doi:10.1002/9781119197508.ch6S

Bertino, E. (2016). Security threats: protecting the new cyberfrontier. Computer49(6), 11-14. doi:10.1109/mc.2016.188

Sir Isaac Newton

            Sir Isaac Newton was an exemplary scholar from primary school up to the university. The scientist’s displayed remarkable prowess in numerous fields ranging from mathematics, physics to philosophy, among others. Particularly, Newton is credited with various discoveries, such as the law of gravity and motion.Notably, the scholar’s scientific contributions have had immense impacts to modern science many years after his death and are expected to be equally essential towards the future.

Isaac Newton’s impressive contributions in the field of mathematics and beyond earned him an astounding recognition in the academic circles especially in science. The scholarrevolutionized mathematics and its branches, such as engineering. For instance, the scientist is accredited with various discoveries, such as the Newton’s laws of motion, which are immensely applicable in the modern society. Thus, because of his immense and impactful contributions, the scholar is regarded by scholars and non-scholars as the father of modern science.

Sir Isaac Newton was born on the 4th of January 1643 in Wools Thorpe, Lincolnshire, England few months after the death of his father Isaac Newton. At the age of three, her motherHannah Ayscough married Barnabas Smith, a wealthy clergy who had no interest of having a stepson. Newton was left to live with his grandparents after her mother left to live with her husband. Probably, being abandoned by her mother is what made him develop his untrusting nature (Westfall, 1983). During his teen years he even contemplated burning his mother and stepfather. His solitarily can even be traced to his adult years since he never married nor shared his discoveries with anyone. In 1687, the scientist published his most acclaimed work, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) (Westfall, 1983). In 1705,because of his immense scientific contributions especially the development of contemporary laws of physics,Queen Anne of England knighted him: hence he became Sir Isaac Newton.

Sir Isaac Newton attended the King’s School in Grantham, Lincolnshire where he performed well. Later, teen Newton attended Cambridge College where he was introduced to the standard curriculum despite being interested in advance science(Westfall, 1983). At that time, the European universities concentrated on Aristotelian philosophy implying that the learning was about dealing with nature in qualitative terms rather than quantative. Since Newton had no hobbies, he spent his extra time studying with contemporary philosophers.According to Westfall (1983), during Newton’s private studies, he always wrote and preserved a note, that he named ‘QuaestionesQuaedamPhilosophicae’ meaning (“Certain Philosophical Questions”). This implies that Newton had earlier identified that nature provides a framework for scientific discoveries that could be pursued through questioning.

Later, Newton is said to have graduated from university without a distinction, butluckily, his effort earned him a four-year scholarship, which included financial support for future education (Westfall, 1983). Unfortunately, his luck did not last long as the university closed down in 1665after a great plague ravage. Newton’s ambition to learn drove him to returnto college after a two-yearbreakin which he won the position of a minor fellow at Trinity College (Westfall, 1983).Since he was acknowleged as a standard fellow, he was elected as an insignificant fellow. Despite the discrimination, Westfall (1983) report that he developed academically in the following years; a growth that led to his award ofa Master of Arts degree before the age of 27 years. In his scholarly research, Sir Isaac Newton identified a book by Nicholas Mercator, which was about the methods of dealing with infinite series, which was highly instrumental in his research and discoveries. Some of his remarkable discoveries include a reflecting telescope(Dunham, 1990), which he utilized in the study of optics as a lecturer, as well as publish notes on the optics. In addition, the scholar made immense contribution in motion and mathematics(Dunham, 1990).

Though famously known for the law of gravity, Sir Isaac Newton was a great mathematician as well.  In the field of mathematics, Newton’s predecessor was Archimedes. Archimedes is famously known for the great discoveries he did in Geometry. He defined the path of development in the area of mathematics. During the two years academic break from Cambridge, he foundanew approachtomathematics in the field of calculus. Newton’s calculus theory had been built on earlier works by his university professor Isaac Barrow and a fellow mathematician John Wallis together with other world acclaimed mathematicians such as René Descartes, Gilles Personne de Roberval, and Pierre de Fermat(Dunham, 1990) who had already started the study of analytical geometry. 

Sir Isaac Newton founded what is known today as a generalized binomial theorem. The theorem describes the algebraicexpansion of powers of a binomial (an algebraic expression with two terms, such as a2 – b2). In this regard, binomial theorem expanded the expressions of the form (a + b) n.

(a + b)2 = a2+ 2 ab + b2

(a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2+b3

(a + b)4 = a4 + 4a3b + 6a2b2 + 4 ab3 + b4

It is obvious one desires to get the coefficient of a7 b5 in the expansion of (a + b)12 without going through the lengthy procedures of multiplying (a + b) by itself many times.  Blaise Pascal devised the Pascal’s triangle after discovering that the coefficients could be acquired from the array. Furthermore, Newtonexpanded the binomialtheorem and came up with a formula that allowed generation of the coefficients of the binomial without involving procedure of constructing pascals triangle to get the arrays, as well as would also work for powers like (a + b)1/ 2 or (a + b) – 3 (Connor, & Robertson, 2001).

Newton immensely contributedto the development of the finite differences theory (mathematical expressions of the form f (x + b) – f (x + a)).In addition, the scholaris regarded as one of the first individuals to use the fractional exponents and coordinate geometry to derive solutions to the Diophantine equations (algebraic equations with integer-only variables). Initially, there existed a problem in evaluating approximations to the zeros or roots of a function(Connor, & Robertson, 2001). Notably, Newton developed the Newton’sMethod, which enhanced identification of a solution  to the mathematical problem. The scientist developed a better approximation to the roots and zeros(Connor, & Robertson, 2001). In addition to the contribution, Newton is regarded as the firstperson to use infinite power series with a lot of confidence.

Calculus was different from the geometry of the Greeks under Euclid and Archimedes(Berlinghoff &Gouvêa, 2004). It permitted those pursuing mathematics and engineering tounderstand the principles of motion such as fluid motion and the orbital rotation of planets (Connor& Robertson, 2001). The mathematician earlier solved the problem of curve average slope calculation(Connor& Robertson, 2001). The slope of a curve was consistently changing, and mathematicians were yet to discover a method which gave the exact slope at any particular point on the curve (Connor& Robertson, 2001).  The gradient at an individual point along the curve can be obtained approximately by averaging the slopes of smaller portions of the curve. As the segment of the curve under consideration nears zero, the slope calculation nears the exact slope at the particular point (Connor, & Robertson, 2001).

Sir Isaac Newton calculated function f ‘(x), which is a derivative of a functionf(x) that enables arriving at the slope using any point of the function f(x). The scholarregardedthe instantaneous rate of change at a certain point as fluxions, hence reffered to the technique as the method of fluxions(Connor, & Robertson, 2001).Notably, in modern mathematics, the process of establishingf ‘(x) is referred to as differentiation. The technique is highly applicable in evaluating derivatives of functions, such as trigonometric functions, which include sin(x) and cos(x), exponential and logarithmic functions.In addition to the technique of fluxions, Newton  described fluents by varying values of x and yto identify a general derivative function including variables (Connor, & Robertson, 2001).In this regard, the scholar simplified the calculation of a function’s slope at any given point (x,y) through the use of the derivative functions, hence enhanced the analysis of a wide range of varying scientific phenomena(Berlinghoff &Gouvêa, 2004). For instance, in a time distance graph, the slope depicts the speed of the object at particular point. Notably, Integration or integral calculus, which the scientist referred to as ‘themethodoffluent’is the opposite of differentiation(Berlinghoff &Gouvêa,2004). The scholar described both of the techniques using theNewton’sfundamentaltheoremofcalculus, which states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations, such that, if a function is first integrated, and then, differentiated, the original function is retrieved(Berlinghoff&Gouvêa, 2004).

The integral of a curve, as described by Newton is the formula utilizedto calculate the area bound by a curve and the x-axis, and two defined boundaries. For example, in a function of speed and time, integration yields the area “under the curve”, whichrepresents the distance covered(Berlinghoff &Gouvêa, 2004).Integrationis based on a procedure that is limited in approximating the area of the line along the curve by splitting it intosmall endless columns(Berlinghoff, &Gouvêa 2004).In a similar manner asdifferentiation, an integral function can be stated in general terms: the integral of any power f(x) = xr is (xr+1)/r+1, and there are other integral functions for exponential and logarithmic functions, trigonometric functions.  The area under any curve which is continuous can arrive at any two limits(Berlinghoff &Gouvêa, 2004).

In 1687, Newton’s “Principia” or “The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy,” which is regarded as themost excellent scientific book ever written by a human beingwas published (Connor& Robertson, 2001).In the book, the scholar presented his theories of motion, gravity, and mechanics, explained the eccentric orbits of comets, the tides and their variations, the precession of the Earth’s axis and the motion of the Moon(Connor, & Robertson, 2001). Therefore, besides making some of the most fundamental inventions in mathematics, Newton heavily contributed in other fields, such as astronomy, physics and engineering. 

According to Westfall (1983), Newton did not publish his mathematical work at the time of discovery for fear of being mocked due to his ideas which he couldn’t prove. Nevertheless, the scientist was so sure of his ideas and only shared with those close to him.Newton’s fears of sharing his discoveries can be explained by his rivalry with Gottfried Leibniz, who was a German mathematician who claimed that he invented calculus while Newton claimed that Leibniz was plagiarising his work which he published in the 1670s(Westfall, 1983). The battle headed to the Royal Society who found that Leibniz had not plagiarised Newton’s discoveries since Newton’s work despite being written in 1660s remained unpublished and that he also used his own version of calculus in publishing his work (Westfall, 1983).Although the committee credited Newton with the discovery of calculus, it is Leibniz system of calculus that is commonly applied today.

In conclusion, Newton’sdiscoveries established new solutions to some of the longest existing mathematical problems and some of his contributions in mathematics are still used and unchallenged up-to-date. Notably, his differentiation technique immensely simplified analysis of functions, which had been highly problematic before the invention. In addition, the binomial theorem eliminated the need of complex multiplications during the analysis of polynomials. Furthermore,through the development of what is referred as   “Newton’s method,” Newton eliminated the previously experienced difficulties in evaluation of zero approximations of functions.Such inventions by Newton introduceda new way of thinking, as well as expanded the perceptions of other mathematicians of the time. In this regard,areas of mathematics dealing with motion and orbital rotations can now be explored to completion through Newton’s mathematics. Notably, such significant breakthroughs in the mathematicalarenahave found substantial relevance in the contemporary world.Thus, the scholar apart from revolutionalizing the field of mathematics, his contributionshave immensely improved the people’sability to pursue other mathematics related fields, such as engineering and astronomy.

References

Berlinghoff, W. P., &Gouvêa, F. Q. (2004). Math through the ages: A gentle history for teachers and others. MAA.

Dunham, W. (1990). Journey Through Genius: The great theorems of mathematics. Wiley.

Hirzebruch, F., Borel, A., &Schwarzenberger, R. L. E. (1966). Topological methods in algebraic geometry (Vol. 175). Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer.

O’Connor, J. J., & Robertson, E. F. (2001). The MacTutor history of mathematics archive. World Wide Web page< http://www-history. MCS. st-and. ac. uk/>(accessed April 22, 2004).

Westfall, R. S. (1983). Never at rest: A biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge University Press.

Dear professor Collins,

In this paper, I am trying to describe the history of Isaac Newton who is one of the most renowned mathematician of the 17th century.  In my first draft, I had divided the paper into three sections where one part covered biography, next part covered Newton’s accomplishments while the last part described the impact of his discoveries on the future development of mathematics. Given the feedback I receieved on the draft, I decided to decided to research deeper into the topics I had covered because I had narrowed some of the points. I concentrated most of my efforts for this final version on history of Isaac Newton and proceeded with the accomplishment he made in various areas including binomial theorem, calculus, physics. I proceeded further with his battle with other scholars and finalised on the impact of his discoveries in the future mathematics.I think that the strongest parts of this paper are the examples provided for some of his work. I’m especially proud of his achievement in discovering binomial theorem since he simplified what many people had problems in solving. What I struggled with most was selecting the most significant mathematical accomplishments by Isaac Newton.As you read this paper, please keep basic understanding in mind. Writing this paper has enabled me to understand the various discoveries that Newton made in the field of mathematics. In addition, I understood the challenges that some of the most famous scholars had to go through before they accomplished. In writing this paper, I have gained more knowledge on research and reporting and how to undertake future studies.

Sincerely,

Architecture and Urban Forms

1.      Methodology

The method used to carry out this research was purely qualitative. The decision to use this method was reached due to the exploratory nature of the study and the numerous benefits associated with the approach. The research’s social nature and the availability of data in its natural setting was also a contributing factor in determining the type of research to undertake.  In this regard, the study demanded acquiring of deep and unquantifiable data. Availability of a considerable large amount of secondary information regarding the topic of study was also another determining factor in choosing this method of study(Fross et al. 2015). Architecture and Urban Forms

The benefits of using the qualitative method in this research were established and they include the ability to evaluate topic of study in greater depths. This benefit was very crucial in the study in the sense that the analysis of how the transformation of architecture designs and urban forms, and the impact of the changes in the regions of study required a deep understanding of their (regions) history. The history of these areas was to be analysed regarding their residents, architecture designs, and the key players in the cities’ architectural sector(Fross et al. 2015).

 The fact that the tools of collecting data utilized by this method of study do not have a specific mode of acquiring information was also another immense plus. Guiding and redirecting of the questions in real time was possible hence the required information was captured in full. The study relied on this strength to capture the correct historical data and further clarify to the participants what was needed of them (Shayan 2013). The ability to revise the research’s direction and framework in the event new information and findings came up is another characteristic of the qualitative study that was highly considered. Predicting the exactness of information from this kind of study is usually very hard due to the diversity of regions involved. Capturing of all the information with a particular tool was not easy because new data was expected to emerge during the data collection process. Some of the new datawas expected to come from the research orientation and framework hence a method that would accommodate all the changeswas required (Shayan2013). Finally, the qualitative research allowed the use of human experiences, such as the Dubai visits, hence making the study more powerful and compelling. Architecture and Urban Forms

1.1.            Research Philosophy

The nature of the study as mentioned above is exploratory in nature hence demanding a lot of interactivity with the sources of information. The knowledge that was expected to be gained from the exploration had a direct link to the research. Also, Information was required in depth to answer the research questions and to satisfy the research objectives. Moreover, identifying the changes that have occurred in the architectural designs and urban form of the three cities required a lot of information from different sources. Determining the impacts of the changes also required a lot of interpretation(Xinping 2002). After careful examination of all the factors that were likely to play a role in the research, interpretivism was found to be the most suitable approach. Interpretivism philosophy is known to provide a great level of depth in studying qualitative research fields such as this study. The primary data generated by this approach is also associated with improved validity due to the honesty and trustworthiness of this kind of study.

1.2.            Research Approach

Interpretivism philosophy that was used in this study required information collection and interpretation about Dubai, al Sharjah, and Abu Dhabi (Xinping 2002). Interpreting the data from the study was considered imperative to ensure that the impact of the architectural transformation and urban form was realized. A phenomenological approach was also used to understand the level of changes in Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Al Sharjah. Architecture and Urban Forms Architecture and Urban Forms

    Examination of secondary material through a comprehensive literature review was also highly significant in the understanding of the cities’ history. Semi-structured interviews werealsoto acquire the primary data which improved the level of exploration and hence understanding of the issues under investigation. After completing all the investigations, the level of knowledge was enough to make some conclusions about the topic of study. This knowledge gained about the cities wasextensive and permanent due to the depth and the level of interaction with the sources. Finally, the permanent nature of the information gained implies that the approach used had some element of transactional epistemology.

1.3.            Access

Gathering of primary and secondary data during the research heavily relied on the access of appropriate sources. The appropriateness of the sources was determined by the study designs, objectives, and the questions. Previous visits to Dubai in 1996 and 2008 led to the realization of the transformationsthe United Arabs Emirates cities were undergoing and formed the basis of this study(AL Mousli & El-Sayegh 2016). Identification of changes that had occurred in the three cities involved in this study required a comprehensive assessment of the current architectural designs. Architecture and Urban Forms

    Visits to each of the cities were considered necessary for interaction with the information source and documentation. The visits were planned early and proper documentation acquired in time to ensure that no problems were encountered during the visits. Before the visits, Access to the most modern architectural structures, such as the Burj Khalifa, Burj Al Arab, the Palm Island in Dubai. Capital Gate Yas Viceroy, Abu Dhabi Hotel, Emirates Palace, in Abu Dhabi, and the Butterfly Pavilion in Al Sharjah, was arrangedto ensure smooth access to collect data during the visits (Damkuj2006). Eventually, after all, the planning, the visits took place, and proper documentation of the cities was carried out. Architecture and Urban Forms

Acquiring a clear view and understanding of the architectural design and urban form transformations in the cities required that at least some key players be involved in the study. In light of this, an evaluation of the architectural communities operating in the United Arabs Emirates was conducted.After the evaluation, the topmost communities working in the three cities were identified and communication with the topmost management was initiated. Early contacts ensured that the most appropriate people to take part in the study were established and a commitment to be involved guaranteed. The avenues that were used to access information from the communities included email and Skype.

    Architectural designs companies were also established as other key players in this study. Information from these enterprises was considered critical in decision making in the sense that the firm had been involved in the creation of structures in the cities and were most likely the best people to consult regarding the changes that had occurred in the architectural sector. The primary tool used to collect information from the players was interviews(Abutalibov & Guliyev 2013). The interviews were preferred because of the ability to clarify information from the source. Since meetings required a considerable amount of time, early arrangements on matters such as venues was considered to be necessary. Architecture and Urban Forms

    After the necessary arrangement had been put in place, key experts were identified from the companies and the need for their involvement in the study explained to them to ensure their commitment. Key decision makers in matters regarding architectural design in the three cities were also identified as important players in the study. (Abutalibov & Guliyev 2013).  Interviews were also considered to be the best tools of information collection from these sources. Use of interviews was preferred due to the high probability of finding the key decisions makers together in many of the meetings they conduct. After the necessary arrangement had been put in place, short interviews were secured before and after some of their many meetings. The dates for the interviews were carefully chosen, to ensure that they coincided with the duration of the visits to the cities, to minimize costs.

    Apart from the primary sources of information mentioned above, auxiliary information also played a key role in the study. Some of the areas where the secondary sources were used include the definitions of terms such as identity and architectural culture. Further, the secondary sources were used to review the changing forms of architecture concerning the identity in the Middle East. Proper documents regarding the architectural revolution of the United Arab Emirates since the formation of the union in the 70s were also examined(Sandelowski 2005). Architecture and Urban Forms

    Secondary sources also provided precious information about the architectural development of the United Arab Emirates after the invasion of the global market. This form of data also emanated from the analytical review of the vision of each Emirate decision-makers and the observation of the planning regulations and policies of the architecture(Sandelowski2005). Relevant secondary sources were also used to examine the impact of the decision maker’s visions and the planning regulations and policy on the culture in each of the Emirate. Architecture and Urban Forms

    The secondary materials used in this study were collected from the university and the public libraries which included newspapers, local media, official statistics and data, government documentaries, architectural news journals, magazines, books, daily newspapers, books, and academic journals(Sandelowski 2005). Media collections used in the study included TV programs and interviews, tweets, speeches from decision makers and key experts in the architectural field in the UAE, Instagram, and other media programs.

    Potential sources of all these materials required to carry out the study were identified before the study commenced. A lot of sources were found which could have provided the materials but streamlining was done using convenience as the primary factor. The sources with easy access were identified, and collection of materials started. Authorization was acquired for materials such as videos that required it before access. Facilities such as the internet that eased the access of data were also acquired early before the beginning of the study. Various media houses were also contacted in each of the Emirate to acquire access of some of the TV series. Social media accounts were also created to ensure access to   large volumes of photos in these sites(ed. Elsheshtawy 2008).

1.4.            Research Strategy

1.4.1.      Literature Review

            A literature review was used to provide a theoretical foundation of the study. Information gathered from both primary and secondary sources was used to identify some gaps. After various deductions, the research questions were formulated and hence the objective of the study. Some of the information sources used included books, Paper works, and articles. A review about Middle East countries urban identity transformation was conducted with more focus on the UAE especially Dubai, al Sharjah, and Abu Dhabi between the 19th and the 21st century. The collected Data was critically analyzed with regard to the global trends (ed. Elsheshtawy 2008).

1.4.2.      Tools Used for Data Collection

 Various tools and techniques were used in the collection of primary and secondary data. The tools employed in the gathering of primary data were, semi-structured interviews, on-line questionnaire, and observation(Shayan2013). Secondary sources as indicated above included public and private libraries. An in-depth view of the tools and techniques applied in this study is provided below.

1.4.2.1.            Semi-Structured Interviews

    Semi-structured interviews were used to collect information from a group of experts from the best architectural companies working in the Emirates, a group of decision makers, and members of Municipalities in the three cities. The decision to use this tool was because there was only one a chance to interview the participants and hence use of assistance was possible(Shayan2013). Semi-structured interviews also provided a clear set of instructions for the interviewers and provided qualitative data that was reliable and comparable.

    The observation strategy used to collect data about the current architectural structures in the three cities that were under investigation also contributed significantly when making the decision to use semi-structured interviews. Semi-structured interviews always come after observation which was a technique used in this study during the visits. Informal and unstructured interviewing intended to aid the development of the keen understanding of the topic under investigation which is required for developing relevant and purposeful semi-structured questions to the researcher(Shayan 2013). Open-ended issues and training of interviewers techniques used by this tool also enhanced the following of the relevant topics that could have strayed from the interview guide hence provided a chance to identify new perceptions about the issue. Architecture and Urban Forms

    The benefits that accompanied the use of semi-structured interviews include the ability to design the questions in advance hence the interviewer appeared more competent. Preparation of the questions in advance also enhanced relevance as the questions were fine tuned to capture the intended data. The tool also allowed the respondents to express their views using their terms hence feel accommodated by the process.

     After establishing that the semi-structured interviews were the best to interview the key players (who had witnessed the architectural transformations in the cities) in the architectural designs of Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Al Sharjah, questions that would capture the necessary information to answer the research questions were designed (Al Darmaki 2008).The ten questions that featured in the interviews can be found in the appendix. The themes of the interviews were derived using the literature review.

    The interviews as stipulated earlier coincided with the time of visiting each of the emirates to minimize cost. In each of the cities, the interviews were carried out in sets of three whereby, each of the interviews targeted a particular group created out of convenience. For instance, one set of the interviews focused all the experts from the major cities(Al Darmaki 2008). The key decisions makers were also targeted by another set and the other set targeted the members of the municipality. All the interviews were 30-40 minutes long and took place at locations convenient to the respondents.

The schedule for the interviews was strategically chosen to ensure that all the participants were able to attend. The sessions were further structured to enhance question answering using the minimum duration possible. Whenever a disagreement in views and issues got encountered, a predefined approach was used to end the stalemate (Creswell 2003).  Different perspectives on an issue were established from the respondents if any. If the number of the perceptions was more than two, then they were narrowed down to the strongest two.

The remaining two issues were then subjected to a smooth voting process whereby the winning view was noted as the opinion of the entire respondents. The remaining perceptions were also observed to improve decision making later. Due to the prior arrangements and considerations, the interviews were the most successful method of collecting primary data concerning acquiring the intended information and the participation of the respondents(Al Darmaki 2008). Before the interviews took place, the respondents’ consent to the interview was asked and requests to have their names not mentioned were made to avoid organizational backlash in case the study’s contents were interpreted in non-academic forms and distributed. Fictional names have therefore been used to describe the respondents in this study. Architecture and Urban Forms

1.4.2.2.            On-line Questionnaire

    Closed-ended questionnaires were prepared and administered online to residents of Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Al Sharjah. The reasons to use the closed-ended questionnaires were reached due to numerous benefits associated with the tool (Damkuj 2006). Some of the advantages that are associated with the tool include the ability to get direct to the point answers using minimum time possible. Precise responses obtained can also be compared easily because they avoid confusing details. This strength was very applicable to this study because a comparison of the three cities was required after data collection.

    The ability of the responses from the tool being used to clarify the questions’ meaning was used to refine them to capture the intended information in the process of conducting the study. The closed-ended questionnaires also implement simple questions hence eliminating the need for tedious explanations (Creswell 2003). The options to the questions also help the participants to understand the questions as they (options) provide more information on how the response should look like. Architecture and Urban Forms

    The questionnaires were preferred to minimize the cost of collecting data from them as their number was relatively large. Too many clarifications could have made the process more tedious and involve a lot of internet costs. A simple process was also considered to be the best because hard tests mostly scare away respondents.

    The questionnaire that was used in this study consisted of five questions which can be found in appendix1. Each of the question consisted of multiple options whereby the respondents were supposed to choose one option (Creswell 2003). The process of collecting data using the tool commenced after the development of the questions and formation of the appropriate groups. The device provided convenience as the respondents could answer the questions at their own free time. The respondents could also ‘pause’ the process to continue later just in case something arose when in the middle of the process. High internet penetration in the cities also provided a favorable environment for the information collection. The primary purpose of the questionnaire was to get the cities’ residents perception of the changes in architectural designs and urban form (ed. Elsheshtawy 2008).

1.4.2.3.            Email and Skype Communication

The topic under investigation was broken down into several sub-topics which were used to moderate Skype and email communication. Several Architectural communities operating in the UAE were established, and their topmost management members identified. A sample from the management members was then chosen using specific criteria such as the availability of contacts (Damkuj 2006). Communication regarding the subtopics created was then used to conduct the discussions. The targeted information was general, but the impact of policies and regulations to the architectural designs in the UAE was highly emphasized. Architecture and Urban Forms

The avenue preferred was the Skype calls due to the ability to get immediate information but in case the participant didn’t have the time for the calls email was used. Topics of discussion were dropped on the respondent’s inbox one after the other whereby they were required to give their general view. Emails were used to give participants the freedom to take part at their free time hence increasing the number of respondents.

            Information from communities was collected in this manner because the members of the communities’ management were located in different parts of UAE and hence bringing them together for an interview was not possible. The participants were also willing to take part in a long process and their part of the story was also very crucial to the study. The topics that guided the discussions can be found on appendix2.

Secondary Data-The university and public libraries were the major sources of secondary data. The sources were used to give a general overview of the historical part of the study. Secondary sources of data were considered to be the best sources of the historical as information was likely to be original. Information that featured in this part of the study was chosen using the specific objectives of the research. Access to libraries in Dubai, al Sharjah and Abu Dhabi was secured as the relevant information was likely to be found there. Large volumes of data in form of journals, articles, videos and photographs and other categories were identified and a study of the information conducted (ed. Elsheshtawy 2008). Architecture and Urban Forms

1.5.            Case Study

The overall technique that was used to conduct the research was a case study. The analysis of the transformation of architecture and urban forms in Dubai, al Sharjah, and Abu Dhabi were used to make assumptions for the entire United Arabs Emirates. What was found to be true in the three cities regarding the topic under investigation was assumed to be true for the larger UAE. The main reasons of using a case study include cost and time effectiveness. Carrying out this type of research in the entire UAE would have involved a lot of cost in terms of transport and collecting data would have taken a lot of time (Sandelowski 2005).

            The literature review conducted established the criteria that were used in the case study. The case study relied on the tools of collecting data discussed above to generate enough data for decisions and conclusions to be made. The choice of the cities where the research took place was made due to their diversity in the identity by the ruler vision. An extensive research in cities established the architectural transformations and urban form in each of them. A comparison of the results was then expected to reveal the general transformations occurring in all the three cities. The cause of these general transformations was then assumed to be the dynamics in the entire region of UAE (ed. Elsheshtawy 2008).

1.6.            Comparative Study

Generated data about the cities, where the study was conducted, was compared to identify the general outcomes. A comprehensive analysis of the information generated by the data collection tools revealed the rapid transformations and, the changes of urban identity and urban cortex in Dubai, al Sharjah, and Abu Dhabi. A comparative study was used to identify the common results which were assumed to have been caused by the uniform dynamics in the UAE such as the entry of the global market in the region and the formation of the union (ed. Elsheshtawy 2008).  Architecture and Urban Forms

1.7.            Data Collection

            The tools and techniques of data collection discussed in this study above were the main avenues of collecting information required. The sampling criteria used are discussed below.

1.7.1.      Sampling

            Considering the research objectives and the issues under investigation, the entire populations of the parties involved in the architectural designs and urban management of the three cities could have played a role in the research. However, due to the financial and time constraints inherent in this study, a non-probability sample was selected from the entire populations. A non-probability sample is always preferred when a case study is being adopted(Damkuj 2006). Architecture and Urban Forms

            The three variation of the populations used in the study were experts from architecture design companies and architecture communities in the UAE, key architectural decision makers, Municipality members, and the locals in the three cities. A sample of ten experts was selected from the four most famous architectural design companies. The companies that featured in the research were; Al Habtoor Group-Arabtec Construction-Skidmore, Owings & LLP (SOM) – Emaar Properties. The longest serving highest ranked experts were the ones given a priority. Selected experts were then subjected to a ten question interview as discussed above.

Ten members of the key decision makers were selected randomly in each of the three cities. The groups of the decision makers that featured in this study included government officials, the private investors in the architectural sectors and the cities’ management boards. After the selection of the members, they were interviewed using the semi-structured interviews. Finally, ten members of the municipalities were also selected to be interviewed in each of the emirates(Damkuj 2006).

            The number of the locals who took part in the study was selected randomly in each of the cities. The samples from each of the cities were selected using the population of each city with regard to the confidence interval and level. Abu Dhabi received the highest number of the local participants as it had the largest population, Dubai was second and al Sharjah received the smallest number of the local participants. Specifically, ten local people were selected for al Sharjah, fifteen for Dubai and twenty for Abu Dhabi. The samples were then subjected to an on line questionnaires. Architecture and Urban Forms

Finally, ten members of the architecture communities were randomly selected from the architecture communities in the UAE. The members then took part in online discussions via Skype and emails. Sub-topics generated from the research topic with regard to the research objectives were used to moderate the discussions.

1.8.            Analysis of Research Findings

Since the research questions used in this study were formulated using the literature review, and the postulation of the research questions used the deductive approach. The same approach was found to be convenient in the data analysis. Data and information generated by each of the research tools and techniques was interpreted and some meaning deduced. The meanings from each of the tools and techniques were then interpreted to develop some conclusions about a particular city. The conclusions from every city were then compared to develop some general similarities which were then assumed to apply in the entire UAE(Damkuj 2006).

1.9.            Ethics

The Birmingham city university ethical guidelines were used in this study. The materials generated in the process of research were used for the purpose of the study (Sandelowski 2005). All the participants of the study were informed in advance, the aim and questions of the research. The participants consent to be involved in the study was acquired prior to the commencement of the study. The right to withdraw at any time from the study was also guaranteed to the participants before the study started. The copyright concerns were addressed prior to the acquisition of any recorded information. The recorded information included videos and TV series.Information and data generated by the research is also being handled carefully and cannot be disclosed to anybody or organization without the participant’s agreement except for academic reasons.

1.10.        Limitations

The major limitations that were encountered in the time of the study included the limited time that was available to interact with the sources of the information. The visits to the cities were for a short duration within which a lot of information was supposed to be collected. This limited time could have led to the assumption of very relevant sources of information that if exploited could have led to richer conclusions. The assumptions that whatever applied in the three cities where investigations were conducted applied in the entire UAE also, might have brought some shortcomings (Sandelowski 2005). Architecture and Urban Forms

1.11.        References

Creswell, JW 2003,Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods design,Sage, London.

Damkuj, S 2006,The Architecture of the United Arab Emirates,Garnet Publishing Ltd, Reading UK.

AL Mousli, M & El-Sayegh, S 2016,‘Assessment of the design–construction interface problems in the UAE’,Architectural Engineering and Design Management, vol. 12, no. 5, pp.353-366.

Fross, K, Winnicka-Jasłowska, D, Gumińska, A, Masły, D & Sitek, M 2015,‘Use of Qualitative Research in Architectural Design and Evaluation of the Built Environment’, Procedia Manufacturing’, vol. 3 no. 1, pp.1625-1632.

Shayan, F 2013, ‘Doing Q-methodological research: theory, method and interpretation’, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, vol. 17, no 1, pp.87-88.

Xinping, Z 2002,‘Interpretivist Research, Positivist Research, and Field Research’,Chinese Education & Society, vol. 35, no. 2, pp.39-46.

Abutalibov, R& Guliyev, S 2013,‘Qualitative Research and the Process of Constructing Qualitative Data’,SSRN Electronic Journal, Vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 4-15.

Sandelowski, M 2005, ‘Book Review: Interactive Qualitative Analysis: A Systems Method for Qualitative Research’,Qualitative Health Research, vol. 15, no.5, pp.719-720.

Al Darmaki, I 2008, Globalisation and Urban Development: A Case Study of Dubai’s Jumeirah Palm Island Mega Project, thesis, PhD, University of Southampton, School of Geography, pp.180-243,Viewed 27 July 2015,

http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/67552/1.hasCoversheetVersion/Dubai%27s_Jumeirah_Palm_Island_MP.pdf.

Elsheshtawy, Y (ed.)2008,The evolving Arab city: tradition, modernity, and urban development,Routledge 34,London.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.12.        Appendices

1.12.1.  Appendix

Interview Questions

  1. What are some of the factors that influenced the Architectural Designs in this city before the establishment of the UAE?
  2. Are there some designs existing that were still there even before the formation of the Union and is their number significant?
  • How has the UAE union affected the architectural identity of the city in terms of policies and regulations?
  • When did the City experience major changes in architectural designs and the urban form
  • Are the Existing local laws and regulations Slowing down or increasing the rate of changes to architectural designs and urban form in the city?
  • Who plays the biggest role in determining the architectural designs? The government or the customers?
  • How is the global market influencing the urban form and the future architectural designs in the cities?
  • Can the Changes, in the architectural designs and the urban form experienced in the city, be attributed to the foreign investors?
  • Are the economic priorities of the city leading to the changes being experienced in architectural design and urban form?
  • Are their significant urban forms conservation efforts.

1.12.2.  Appendix1

Questionnaire

  1. How do you feel the identity of the architectural designs and urban forms have changed in the last three decades?
  2. Less Changed
  3. Moderately Changed
  4. Completely Changed
  1. Do you think the government has put enough efforts to conserve the architectural designs and urban form?
  2. Yes
  3. No
  4. What factors do you think are contributing to changes or no changes in the urban form and the architectural designs?
  5. Economic factors
  6. Cultural and social factors
  7. None of the above
  8. How do you expect the architectural designs and urban form to change in future?
  9. Slightly Change
  10. Moderately change
  11. Highly Change
  12. None of the above
  13. How have been involved in the conservation of the urban form and architectural identity?
  14. slightly involved
  15. Moderately involved
  16. Highly involved
  17. None of the above

1.12.3.  Appendix2

Discussion Topics

  1. Discuss the role played by the UAE since its inception in the changes of the urban forms and architectural designs
  2. Discuss the role of government in the conservation of the urban form and architectural identities.
  3. Do you think the current laws and regulation are affecting the changes in architectural designs and urban forms? Discuss.
  4. Have the architectural designs and urban form changed to the better or for the worse? Discuss. 

1.12.4.  Appendix3

Methodology Diagram

The OSI

Network Architecture: The OSI (Open System Interconnection) Reference Model

            The OSI model has seven layers with each of them covering distinct network activities, protocols, or equipment. Each layer at the sender host adds information to the data being sent that is decoded at the same level of the receiving end. The level of accuracy in decoding the information added at the sender level highly determines the integrity of the data sent. Each layer offers services to the next layer up the model and shields it from the complexity of other layers below it (Palpandi, Geetharamani, & Pandian, 2011). A clear description of the seven layers of the OSI model is shown below.

Application Layer

            The layer supports common protocols utilized by the browsers in the sending of the message. The application layer refers to the services critical in support of the user applications, which include file transfer software, email, and database access. Messages enter and exit the OSI model at this point. The protocols of the application layer can be programs, for instance, the FTP (file transfer protocols) and can be utilized by other programs like the mail transfer protocols that are utilized by the electronic mail programs to redirect data.

    In a college administration analogy, the board of trustees’ functions as the sending host, which directs the president to send a particular message to another institution. The college president on the other hand functions as the application layer by deciding, which vice president will ensure the message is communicated to the correct destination (Offstein & Chory, 2016).

Presentation Layer

             The presentation layer is below the application layer and is tasked with defining the format of exchange between communicating computers. The layer can also be referred to as the network translator whereby formats from the sending host are translated to the format the receiving computer can understand. Data from the application layer is translated into an intermediary format that is commonly recognizable (Корнієнко, 2012).

            Within the receiving host, the presentation layer converts the intermediary format to a usable format to the application layer. The redirectors responsible for input and output operation to the server resources works at the presentation layer. Some of the tasks of the layer include data encryption and translation, conversion or changing of the character set, managing data compression, and graphics command expansion. In the college analogy, the college vice president acts as the presentation layer by determining the best department that can effectively communicate the message according to his/her understanding (Offstein & Chory, 2016).

Session Layer

            The purpose of the session layer is to initiate a communication between two communicating computers. The number five layer from bottom enables two applications on separate computers to start, utilize, and end a connection known as a session, which is a structured dialog between 2 hosts. Some of the tasks performed on the layer are critical to the communication of two applications, and they include dialog management, security, and name-recognition among others. The college department heads tasked with communicating the message acts as the session layer, whereby they get the details of the destination and receive responses on behalf of the institution (Offstein & Chory, 2016).

Transport Layer

            The 4th layer is responsible for additional connection below the session layer. The layer primarily ensures that packets get to the destination without loss, duplication, and in a sequence and error free manner. Message repackaging is done at the sending computer whereby the long messages are divided into packets, and the small packets are put together into one package. The transport layer at the receiving host reassembles the packets to form the original message from the sender and sends back message receipt acknowledgment. In the college case, the department’s head staff acts as the transport layer whereby they break down the message communicated and decide how to send it. The staff may use several letters or a single one considering the message being communicated (Offstein & Chory, 2016).

Network Layer

            Message addressing, and logical naming and address translation is done by the third layer of the OSI model. The layer is also responsible for determining the source to destination route considering the priority of service and network conditions among other factors. Control of data congestion, network problem management, and packet routing and switching are also some of the functions performed by the layer (Корнієнко, 2012).

    The router’s network layer also resizes the source message if it is larger than the adaptor can handle. The message is reassembled at the destination’s network layer to form the original chunk at the source. The mail department acts as the network layer whereby they determine the best way the message can reach the destination (Offstein & Chory, 2016).

Data Link Layer

            The purpose of the 4th layer is to send frames from the network layer to the layer beneath it. Electrical impulses leaving or entering the cable and known by the data link layer are controlled only at this level of the OSI reference model. At the destination computer, the layer is responsible for packaging bits into data frames. The staff at the mail department acts as the data link layer by sending every mail using the correct medium. For instance, the staff might choose to email the urgent messages and send the not so urgent messages using the postal services (Offstein & Chory, 2016).

Physical Layer

            The work of this layer is to establish and maintain a communication link between communicating computers. Data generated in the upper layer is also transmitted via the physical layer through signals. Defining how the cable is connected to the network interface is another function of the layer. For instance, the layer determines the number of the pins the connector has and the purpose of each. In the college example, the actual means used to send the message performs the role of the physical layer. The messengers, the postal service providers, and others are responsible for ensuring that the messages reach the destination and the response is transported back (Offstein & Chory, 2016). 

The Logical and Physical Communication of the OSI Reference Model Diagram

Figure 1: Logical and physical communication of the OSI reference model

References

B.Palpandi, B., Dr. G.Geetharamani, D., & Pandian, J. (2011). Performance Enhancement in OSI Network Model using Fuzzy Queue. Indian Journal Of Applied Research4(4), 377-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.15373/2249555x/apr2014/116

Offstein, E. H., & Chory, R. M. (2016). Breaking bad in business education: impacts on student incivility and academic dishonesty. business and professional communication quarterly. doi:10.1177/2329490616671709Communication Quarterly73(2), 237-239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1080569910365792

Корнієнко, Б. (2012). Research of open systems interconnection model in terms of information security. Science-Based Technologies15(3). http://dx.doi.org/10.18372/2310-5461.15.5120

Non-eating Behavior

Refusal or Non-eating Behavior

Plan Evaluation

Summary

            Manar Al-Elaiwi, a one year and two months female child, has a healthy growth and exhibits normal activities. However, a few weeks ago, her mother discovered that Manar was exhibiting abnormal eating behaviors. She decided to seek for external assistance since she was worried that Manar was not getting the minerals required for a healthy physical development. According to the mother, Manar was not interested in food such as meat, fish, and vegetables. The child was also struggling eating breakfast and sometimes would eat some of her lunch due to missing the breakfast (Park, 2016).  Non-eating Behavior

            The kid liked eating dessert such as cakes, candies, cookies, and ice creams as well as fruits such as bananas and oranges. When Manar ate a snack before a meal, she left the table immediately. From the mother’s description of the current situation, a problem identification procedure was initiated. Among the targeted behaviors included refusing to eat, not staying at the eating table, turning head, closing the mouth, pushing dishes, mashing food, and crying. According to Manar’s mother, the behaviors had been occurring since July 2016; hence, they are critical to investigate the problem (Park, 2016). Non-eating Behavior

            The child was observed for a total of twenty minutes in the problem identification process. The twenty minutes were divided into five sessions with each session lasting for three minutes. The behavior was then observed in ten-second intervals in each of the session. The courses were distributed in a manner that all the three categories of meals, that is, breakfast, lunch, and supper were captured. The observations made during the process are presented below. Non-eating Behavior

TimeLocationGeneral ActivityWhen *(Antecedents)  (Behaviors)To: *(Consequence)
3 minTableBreakfastMum offered foodRefused to eat and criedMum ignored the child
3 minTableLunchMum offered foodRefused to eat, mashed food, and criedMum continued offering foods
3 minTableBreakfastMum provided foodRefused to eatMum ignored the child
3 minRestaurantLunchMum offered foodRefused to eat and criedMum continued offering foods
3 minTableDinnerMum provided foodRefused to eat, mashed food, and left the tableMum ignored the child

            The problem identification process confirmed that Manar had an eating problem in all the three categories tested. During all five sessions, it was identified that Manar refused to eat, and any persistence by her mother resulted to her crying. The child also smashed the food and left the table whenever she was ignored after refusing to eat. Non-eating Behavior

Intervention Strategies Description

            A plan to solve the problem was carried out after the eating issue was confirmed. The targeted replacement behaviors included the child being able to eat all three meals in a day. The plan aimed to get Manar to stop leaving the table before her meals. Getting the kid to start eatingproperly and stop depending on breastfeeding was necessary. The actual plan was designed such that the food intake was to grow from the zero bite she was taking to two bites of food. Non-eating Behavior

            Among the considered factor in the design of the plan was the kid’s cultural background. Mamar is of an Arabic origin but living in the United States of America. The child lives with her family only with no any relative around. Mamar is also enrolled in a day care and hence she is learning some skills at school. The program was designed to incorporate the Arabic table behaviors and some skills that Mamar was learning at school. Some of the things influenced by this factor include the cutlery and their color and their use.

            The program was implemented for fourteen days starting on Monday 14th to Sunday 27th

November 2016. Manar’s mother filled a form on the child behavior during mealtime for the duration of fourteen days. Observations were made in three minutes sessions with ten minutes intervals during all the three meals. The mother also evaluated the progress of the kid’s eating behavior afterevery three days. The mother checked if the behavior changedaccording to the plan and established changes to the program if necessary. Changes or lack of them in child’s behavior was used to modify the program to realize the targeted results.

            Besides the recording of the child’s eating progress in every meal, five meals were selected randomly in each of the two weeks the program and the kid’s behavior were recorded. A special ratio recording form was used to capture the kid’s overall behavior in these five meals per week. The (+) sign was used to denote that positive behavior happened and the (-) denoted negative habits.The meals were randomly identified to eliminate biasness in the categories of meals captured. Non-eating Behavior

            The first step of the program was to deny the child any drinking, snacking, and nursing for the entire day. The measure was aimed at ensuring that the kid became hungry during the day,hence increasing the chances of her eating. The next step of the program was to introduce food to the child in small chunks. After denying Mamar drinking and snacking all day, the little amounts of food were given to her during meal times. The small pieces were offered in between the child’s favorite food bites, and her behavior was recorded. Non-eating Behavior

            The kid was rewarded with chocolate or any of her favorite meals after accepting to take food to encourage her eating in future. The step was repeated during every meal for three days when the mother evaluated the progress. The meals were separated by at least six hours to ensure that they did not affect each other. For instance, if dinner was offered a few hours after lunch, the kid was likely to be full, hence refusing to eat. After three days, the amount of food was increased according to the child’s eating behavior. The mother increased the amount of food when the kid showed eating interest and retain the same amounts when no change was identified. The child was expected to have learnt to eat during meals time in the two weeks of the program. Non-eating Behavior

Consultation Outcome

            Mamar’s mother evaluated the child’s behavior after every three days using the observations recorded in a special form. Then, she modified the program if necessary according to the data collected. The evaluations highly improved the program due to the modifications made. Such evaluations also assisted the mother in understanding the program clearly and eliminating any mistakes made in the implementation. Apart from that, the mother highlighted the points where the program achieved the targeted results. Non-eating Behavior

            The evaluations led to an improved program that produced the desired results. Apart from that, it enhanced accurate data capturing by identifying mistakes and correcting them. The mother also noted the mistakes and shown how to rectify. Moreover, she improved understanding of the program and quality of its implementation due to the reduced mistakes made. Identification of success areas encouraged the mother to push on with the plan as she could see that it was practical. Non-eating Behavior

Summary of Fidelity Data

            Data was collected for the two weeks that the program ran. It resulted in a changed eating behavior where the amount of food intake increased. During the two weeks, it was noted that the food intake increased gradually for breakfast and lunch. The food intake during Dinner was not uniform with a little success being achieved. Such observation could be as a result of satisfaction from breakfast and lunch or the fatigue caused by the day’s activities. Non-eating Behavior

            The data collected during the implementation of the program was tabulated and is shown below-

Date 14thTimeLocationGeneral ActivityWhen *(Antecedents)  (Behaviors)To: *(Consequence)
3 minTableBreakfastMom offered amounts of food(2/6  of a teaspoon)Refused to eat and criedMum ignored the child
3 minTableLunchMum offered small amounts of food (2/6 of a teaspoon)Took small amounts about four teaspoons and then refused to eat and criedMum ignored the child
3 minTableDinnerMum offered food (2/6 of a teaspoon)Refused to eatMum ignored the child
15th     
3 minTableBreakfastMum offered food in small amountsTook small amounts of food about four teaspoons then refused the foodMum rewarded the child with chocolate
3 minTableLunchMum provided foodTook the food about five teaspoons and then refused to eatMum ignored the child
3 minTableDinnerMum offered foodTook the food About two teaspoonsMum ignored the child
16th     
 TableBreakfastMum offered foodTook the food About four teaspoonsMum rewarded the child with chocolate
 TableLunchMum offered the foodTook the food About five teaspoonsMum rewarded the child with chocolate
 TableDinnerMum offered foodTook the food About two teaspoonsMum ignored the child
17th     
 TableBreakfastMum offered foodTook about five teaspoons of foodMum rewarded the child with chocolate
 TableLunchMum offered foodTook about six teaspoons of foodMum rewarded the child with chocolate
 TableDinnerMum offered foodTook about two teaspoons of foodMum ignored the child
18th     
 TableBreakfastMum offered foodTook about six teaspoons of foodMum rewarded the child with chocolate
 TableLunchMum offered foodTook about seven teaspoonsMum rewarded the child
 TableDinnerMum offered foodTook about one teaspoonMum ignored the child
19th     
 TableBreakfastMum offered foodTook about seven teaspoonsMum rewarded the child
 TableLunchMum offered foodTook about eight teaspoonsMum rewarded the kid
 TableDinnerMum offered foodTook about two teaspoonsMum ignored the child
20th     
 TableBreakfastMum offered foodTook about eight teaspoonsMum rewarded the child
 TableLunchMum offered foodTook about nine tablespoonsMum rewarded the child
 TableDinnerMum offered foodTook about three tablespoonsMum ignored the child
21st     
 TableBreakfastMum offered foodTook about nine teaspoonsMum rewarded the kid
 TableLunchMum offered foodTook about ten teaspoonsMum rewarded the kid
 TableDinnerMum offered foodTook about two teaspoonsMum ignored the kid
22nd     
 TableBreakfastMum offered foodTook about ten teaspoonsMum rewarded the kid
 TableLunchMum offered foodTook about ten teaspoonsMum rewarded the kid
 TableDinnerMum offered foodTook about two teaspoonsMum ignored the kid
23rd     
 TableBreakfastMum offered foodTook  about  ten teaspoonsMum rewarded the kid
 TableLunchMum offered foodTook about ten teaspoonsMum rewarded the kid
 TableDinnerMum offered foodTook about two teaspoonsMum ignored the kid
24th     
 TableBreakfastMum offered foodTook about ten teaspoonsMum rewarded the kid
 TableLunchMum offered foodTook about ten teaspoonsMum rewarded the kid
 TableDinnerMum offered foodTook about two teaspoonsMum ignored the kid
25th     
 TableBreakfastMum offered foodTook about ten tablespoonMum ignored the kid
 TableLunchMum offered foodTook teaspoons spoonsMum ignored the kid
 TableDinnerMum offered foodTook three teaspoonsMum ignored the kid
26th     
 TableBreakfastMum offered foodTook about ten teaspoonsMum ignored the kid
 TableLunchMum offered the foodTook about teaspoonsMum ignored the kid
 TableDinnerMum offered foodTook about two teaspoonsMum ignored the kid
27th     
 TableBreakfastMum offered foodTook about ten teaspoonsMum ignored the kid
 TableLunchMum offered foodTook about ten teaspoonsMum ignored the kid
 TableDinnerMum offered foodTook about three teaspoonsMum ignored the kid

The data captured in the ratio form is shown below- Non-eating Behavior

Week 1
BehaviorIncrease in Amount of food consumedLeft the table early When ignoredSmashedfood when ignoredCried when forced to eat
Meal1(Breakfast)­­__+_
Meal2 (dinner)_++
Meal3 (lunch)++_+
Meal4(Breakfast)++_+
Meal5(Lunch)__++
Week 2            
Meal6 (Lunch)+_+_
Meal7 (Dinner)+_+_
Meal8(Breakfast)+++_
Meal9(Lunch)++++
Meal10(Dinner)+__

Graphs

 Pm=program monitoring data points

Figure 1: A chart of food took in teaspoons against dates

Conclusion

            Manar Al-Elaiwi had a strange eating behavior before her mother sought for a solution. The child had a problem with eating food during regular mealtime and relied on breastfeeding to survive. Although the kid was exhibiting healthy growth, her mother was worried that her eating behavior would affect her future physical and psychological development (Park, 2016). After evaluating the child’s problem, a solution in the form of a program to correct the kids eating habits was developed.

            The plan was developed to deny Mamar drinking and snacking and start introducing food in small amounts during meals time. The amount of food was increased gradually until the child was taking enough meals for her proper growth. The two-week program was able to get Mamar eating food during breakfast and lunch. The kid’s eating behavior was still problematic for dinner. The failure of the program during dinner can be attributed to the child’s fatigue from the day’s activity. Non-eating Behavior

Reference Park, H. G. (2016). Feeding and eating disorders. Problem-based behavioral science and psychiatry, 551-569. doi:10.1007/978-3-3

Packaging and Consumer Brand

Packaging and Consumer Brand Preferences

Packaging refers to the activity of designing and development of wrapper or container for a product. The activity is a robust medium for promoting sales but it must fulfill all the fundamental functions, which include storage and handling ease, protection, and usage convenience among others(Xie, 2017). In addition, packaging must not be deceptive or communicate any deceiving information to attract customers and create brand loyalty through enhancing its recognition. Brand loyalty can be measured using brand preference, which refers to the probability of a consumer to choose a certain product or brand in a competitive market as well as accept substitutes if the commodity of the brand is unavailable. Brand preference has been established as an important step towards realizing the customer choice behavior hence has been allocated immense attention by marketers. Thus, information from brand preferences can be used to design and develop packaging that will satisfy consumer requirements, as well as convey the correct message to enhance brand loyalty. Packaging and Consumer Brand

Packaging is an effective medium of marketing as it enhances building of consumer relationships through usage and possession. Green, special edition, innovative, and value packaging are some of the strategies used to target particular customers, communicate brand values, as well as promote a product and distinguish it from competitors. Thus, packaging can be considered as on of the particular elements, which catch the desires and needs of a consumer, impacts the consumption and buying behavior, as well as provides a means of communicating within the market.  For instance, in the food industry, glass is one of the most preferred material for processed food since it preserves the taste, provide a clear view of the contents and protect it from contamination, and possess details, which foster consumption. A combination of such techniques with the structural and visual aspects of packaging design, which include shape, size and color, highly influences customer purchase and perceptions, as well as usage behaviors. In addition, packaging is closely related to the product and is a key brand representative, as well as influences the perceived aspects of a commodity(Ford, Moodie& Hastings, 2011). Thus, packaging plays an essential role of influencing customer decisions at the point-of-sale and post-purchase period. Packaging and Consumer Brand

            Currently, consumer habits tend to consider product safety-related elements, such as the utilization of methods of product friendly to the environment, hygienic conditions of health, organic raw materials, and the application of the true controls in the entire cycle of production. In addition, consumers strongly emphasize on the ethical elements of a product, such as environmental sustainability and protection(Xie, 2017). Thus, packaging is regarded as one of the particular aspects, which capture the needs and the desires of the consumer, impacts consumption and purchase behaviors hence a window to engage the buyer within the market. For instance, use of glass, which does not tamper with taste, offers adequate protection, have details that guide consumption, and enhances a clear view of the content, to package processed food is considered appealing to the customer because it meets most of their safety and ethical expectations. Specifically, glass, compared to other materials used in packaging food, is preferred by the customers because it is perceived as healthier, provides better preservation, and possesses elegant nutritional and sensory characteristics(Muratore&Zarbà, 2011). Therefore, product packaging is highly essential because it influences customer preferences by responding to their ethical and safety expectation. Packaging and Consumer Brand

References

 Ford, A., Moodie, C., & Hastings, G. (2011). The role of packaging for consumer products: Understanding the move towards ‘plain’ tobacco packaging. Addiction Research & Theory20(4), 339-347. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/16066359.2011.632700

Muratore, G., &Zarbà, A. S. (2011). Role and function of food packaging: What consumers prefer. Italian Journal of Food Science23, 25.

Xie, Y. (2017). Research on Grains Packaging Design and Consumer Preferences. Proceedings of the 2017 7th International Conference on Mechatronics, Computer and Education Informationization (MCEI 2017). doi:10.2991/mcei-17.2017.73

Big Data Visualization

Big Data Visualization- Twitter

1.      Literature Review

The literature review chapter focuses on previous studies regarding Big data visualization especially techniques used in the analysis and visualization of internet based social media such as twitter users’ credibility. Recent studies focusing on visualizing and analyzing of on twitter content have also been used to reveal fake users. Resources with twitter based cybercrimes such as phishing, farming, and spreading of hate or inflammatory content have also been analyzed.

According to (Cheong, 2011), the existing social media differ both in content shared via the platforms and characteristics. Twitter is one of the most popular social media with unique characteristics and content shared on the platform. However, (De Longueville et al., 2009) notes that the type of content, which includes users’ information, opinions, and reactions, shared on Twitter corresponds to real life events.(De Longueville et al., 2009) also indicate that there existsan immense challenge to twittercontent consumers in that information on the platform is highly polluted.

Therefore, extraction of information with good quality from all the generated content is required due to increased presence of inflammatory content, fake images, spam, phishing, advertisements, and rumors on the platform. According to (Ghosh et al., 2012), Micro-blogs such as Twitter are more appropriate for news based information sharing and dissemination because they are normally public; therefore, widens the contents’ audience range. Previous studies have been conducted using varying classical computation strategies such as characterization, classification, ranking, and user surveys to gather more information on the issue of trust on twitter (Zhang and Xiaoqing, 2014).

Some of the past studies conducted on the issue are based on various categories of classifiers such as decision trees, Naïve Bayes, and SVM to establish non-credible information, spam, and phishing on Twitter utilizing network, user, message, and features based on topic on the platform. Some previous researches have also utilized and improved ranking algorithms for questions regarding issues related to trust; for instance spam and credibility(Dilrukish and Kasun, 2014).

1.1.            Strategies of Measuring Users’ Trustworthiness

According to (Zhang and Xiaoqing, 2014), there exist several techniques of measuring and visualizing user trustworthiness on social media, which include machine learning; graph based, and feature based approaches. (Cheong, 2011) indicates that some of the machine-learning techniques are very useful for analyzing on twitter content and users by providing insights to such information. (Grier et al., 2010) also notes that graphical machine-learning techniques are also very critical because they enhance visualization of users’ credibility. Some of the widely used machine-learning techniques are briefly discussed below.

1.1.1.0.Machine Learning Approach

1.1.1.1.Graphical Methods

(Cheong, 2011) defines machine learning as a technique of analyzing data, which automates the analytical model building. Machine learning enables computers to identify hidden insights without having toprogram them, whereby they utilize algorithms that iteratively learn from data. Although, machine-learning algorithms have been in existence for a considerably long time, the recent need to use complex mathematical calculations to analyze big data, with an improved speed has increased the demand for machine learning techniques. According to (Grier et al., 2010), machine learning evolved from the interest of researchers on artificial intelligence to identify whether computers can learn without having to be programmed. (De Longueville et al., 2009)indicate that there exist three categories of machine learning techniques, which are, supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement approaches.

Supervised machine learning algorithms perform predictions on a particular set of samples(Arakawa et al., 2014). These kind of algorithms identifies patterns in the value labels assigned to data points. On the other hand, machine-learning techniques organize data into sets of clusters for structure description and simplification of complex data, without the use of labels. Reinforcement approaches utilize every data point to choose an action and later analyze the decision (Arakawa et al., 2014). According to (Corvey et al., 2012), the technique changes its approach with time to acquire best results ever.

1.1.1.2.Naïve Bayes Classifier Algorithm

One of the machine learning techniques is Naïve Bayes Classifier Algorithm, which enhances classification of a document, email, webpage, or lengthy texts. According to (Reyes and Smith, 2015), a classifier is a function, which allocates an element value of a population from one of the existing categories. For example, Naïve Bayes algorithm is commonly utilized in spam filtering. In such a case, a spam filter is a classifier that labels emails as ‘not spam’ or ‘Spam’. According (Chung, 2016) naïve Bayes classifier is one of the most popular techniques that utilize a probabilistic approach to develop machine-learning models especially for description of documents. The method is based on Bayes probability theorem that performs a subjective content analysis.

Figure 1: Naive Bayes graphical representation(Reyes and Smith, 2015).

Previous studies have used applied Naïve Bayes approach to investigate fake users and content on social media especially twitter. Currently, Facebook utilizes Bayes classifier algorithm to analyze updates that express negative or positive emotions. Google also uses the technique to identify relevancy scores and index documents. The technique is also very popular in analyzing and classifying technology related documents and filtering spam emails(Dilrukish and Kasun, 2014).

1.1.1.3.Support Vector Machine (SVM) Learning Algorithms

SVM is a supervised method of machine learning, whereby the set of data involved teaches the approach about the classes such that new data can be easily classified. The approach classifies data into varying classes by establishing a line known as a Hyperlane that separates a data set into classes. SVM algorithms exist in two categories that are linear and non-linear support vector machine learning (Chung, 2016).Linear SVM’s separate the training data set using a Hyperlane, while non-linear algorithms do not utilize a hyperlane. According to (Grier et al., 2010), SVMs are very applicably in analyzing the stock markets, while they can also be used to classify data online-based social media.

According to (Dilrukish and Kasun, 2014), other methods of Machine learning techniques include Apriori, linear regression analysis that performs a comparison of two variable, and decision trees among others.

Figure 2: decision tree (Chung, 2016)

1.1.2.0.Feature Based Methods,

Features based methods of analyzing internet based social media include using text, network, and, propagation, and Top-element subsets. Text subsets include analyzing characteristics of messages such as average tweets’ length and sentiments features such as URLs. The network subsets include message authors whereby the number of friends and followers are included. Propagation subsets include tweets and retweets among other features. Finally, top element subsets include a fraction of tweets containing most frequent hashtags, URLs, mentions, among others(Dilrukish and Kasun, 2014).

1.2.            User’s Trustworthiness Visualization Tools and Techniques

According to (Chung, 2016), there exists numerous tools and techniques for visualization of user’s trustworthiness, which include graph, chart, and map based approaches.(Chung, 2016) also argues that trustworthiness techniques and tools are very critical in visualizing user’s credibility and influence, since they create a physical representation of data, thereby improving understanding. Previous studies have focused on several techniques and tools such as credibility and influence approaches whereby strengths and weakness associated with these strategies have been identified.

1.2.1.0.Truthy

One of the tools used in visualizing users trustworthiness is Truthy which is an online based platform used for studying diffusion of information on twitter and computing the level of trustworthiness of micro-blogging, streaming publicly, that are related to a particular event, in a bid, to establish misinformation, political smears, astroturfing, among other social media pollution categories.Truthy utilizes a Boolean technique to analyze user’s content whereby, the tool returns a true or false value(Arakawa et al., 2014). Regarding visualization of user’s credibility, the tool is applied in identifying malicious information and graphically represents the data.

1.2.2.0.The Energy function

The energy function is a reliable tool, which enhances relational learning of large amounts of data from many applications such as internet based social media. (Grier et al., 2010)notes that the energy function involves embedding of multi-relational graphs in vector space that is both continuous and flexible, while enhancing the original data. Some of the techniques related to the function involve encoding the semantics of graphs to assign low energy values to components, which are plausible. Graphs from the tool are a very relevant in visualizing data related to particular content (Awan, 2014).

1.2.3.0.J 48 Decision Trees

According to (Jungherr, 2014), decision trees is another robust category of visualizing online data, whereby an algorithm known as an iterative Dichotomiser 3 is used to predict a new data set record’s target variable. The tool utilizes features based on attributes such as length and width of content to predict the objective attribute. The technique is very useful in classifying content and producing figures that improve visibility of data (Arakawa et al., 2014). (Cheong, 2011) also notes that the tool has been widely used to analyze and visualize credibility of online-based social media users including their content due the ability of the method to graphically display the process of classifying input. (Dilrukish and Kasun, 2014) also argues that since the algorithm can be used with other powerful tools such as Weka, a java application developed by Wakaito University in New Zealand, which improves preformatted data classification and visualization of the process, they are widely used in the analysis of on line content, which demand the use of powerful software.

1.2.4.0.Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) Model

LDA model is a technique that utilizes Dirichlet distribution to identify topics in documents and provide a representation of the topics in percentages (Arakawa et al., 2014). According to (Dilrukish and Kasun, 2014), the technique is highly applicable in visualization of credibility of internet based social media such as twitter, especially in identifying inflammatory or hate content. (Dilrukish and Kasun, 2014) argue that, since the technique can establish topics with offensive words, and provide the data in percentages there by enhancing the process of separating malicious and genuine content, the method improves credibility of content and users visualization.

1.2.5.0.Bootstrapping

Bootstrapping is a statistical based approach utilized to analyze the efficiency of data analysis and visualization tools using random samples (Sharf and Saeed, 2013). The technique involves assigning of accuracy measures such as error prediction, confidence intervals, or variance to random estimates or samples. According to (Corvey et al., 2012), the technique is very useful in visualizing internet based social media users, whereby the method estimates the performance approaches used (to classify and analyze data), hence providing immense knowledge about the topic. In addition, included in the output of Bootstrapping is a graphical representation of techniques used to evaluate credibility, hence improving the visibility of data.

Some other approaches used in improving the visibility of users include rating, whereby approaches and user’s accounts are rated using features such as precision and the quality of content respectively (Verma, Divya and Sofat, 2015). Computing percentages of data involved in various analysis is another technique whereby visibility of credibility can be improved. The method may include charts containing the information regarding several mathematical computations and comparisons.

1.3.            User’s influence Visualization tool and techniques

Several tools and techniques exist that can be used to analyze and visualize users’ influence on twitter. Some of the existing tools and techniques have been applied to visualize user relationship and interactions on internet based social media. A number of users’ influence visualization techniques are discussed below.

1.3.1.0.Geo-scatter Maps with Links

According to (DilruKish and Kasun, 2014), a geo-scatter map with links, a node-link diagram that is overlaid on a map, is a natural fit for graphs that have geo-located nodes. The points representing the child commit’s user and the parent commit’s user are connected with a semi-transparent line to depict the build-upon relationships. (Anwan, 2014) notes that the lines become more opaque as the build-upon connections between nearby locations increase. A log-scaled circle to highlight diversity at location at the comparison’s accuracy expense is utilized to represent the number of commits made at that specific location. According to (Chung, 2016), the technique has been used to visualize friendships on Facebook and professional networks. Due to the ability to provide detailed analysis of connections between users and ability to graphically represent such relationships, Geo-scatter maps with links are highly applicable in visualizing Users’ influence on Facebook.

1.3.2.0.Data

Data is one of the components of social media that can be highly in visualizing users’ influence. According to (DilruKish and Kasun, 2014), using tools such as crawlers, seed group of username can be formed, whereby for every data repository, contributor collaborator, and owner usernames, along with branch names can be established. Fresh usernames are utilized to identify new repositories while the branch names are utilized to establish commits. In addition, data from on line based social media can be used to construct, graphs, which can enhance more influence visibility. (Anwan, 2014) argues that content on twitter has been highly utilized in efforts to visualize users’ influence on the platform.

1.3.3.0.Small Multiples

Generating of a matrix of maps from data is another technique used to increase the depth of analysis and improving visualization of users’ influence, which known as small multiples. According to (Anwan, 2014), comparison is the core of quantitative reasoning, whereby, small multiple designs, data bountiful, and multivariate techniques are used to visually enhance the comparison of changes. (DilruKish and Kasun, 2014) notes that the techniques enables visualization of some patterns, which enhance identification of unforeseen influences since they buck established trends. On twitter, visualization of users influence can be done using small multiple techniques by revealing user details such as relationships, activities, locations, among others.

1.3.4.0.Matrix Diagrams

(DilruKish and Kasun, 2014) argues that although liked scatter maps provide a users’ influence visualization technique, whereby they enhance identification of critical patterns, in an intuitive approach, discerning more subtle relationships and connections using the method can be cumbersome and sometime impossible. Therefore, social links utilizing matrix diagrams are required, whereby they enhance improved visualization by minimizing clutter and enable perceiving of edge metrics, using visual encoding based on the honeycomb project. (Chung, 2016) defines a matrix as a grid, whereby every cell is used to represent a link metric while the columns and rows are used to represent nodes. Some of the metrics used in this users visualization technique include followers; the follow link number, asymmetry; relative difference between totals of followers in every direction, and deviation from the expected, which is the relative difference between the totals of actual links compared to the expected links from a random sampling of the node distribution.

(Polat, 2014) indicates that matrix diagrams are robust tools that can be used to visualize users’ relationships and connection on twitter, since they can be used to provide comparisons that enhance an in-depth understanding of the relationships. According to (DilruKish and Kasun, 2014), using the matrix diagrams it can be easy to identify twitter accounts causing much of user influence on the platform, by offering an abstract representation of user relationships.

1.4.            Big data visualization tools and techniques

According to (Chung, 2016), data visualization involves presenting data in a graphical or pictorial format; hence, enabling visual presentation analytics, thereby assisting decision makers to understand complex concepts or establish new patterns. With interactive visualization, the concept can be further extended utilizing technology to create graphs and charts; hence, increasing details and interactively changing the manner in which data is perceived and processed. (Cheong, 2011) notes that Big data possesses immense potential for great opportunity but most organizations are highly challenged when trying to extract value from the investment of big data.

However, (Awan, 2014) explains that robust, big data visualization, tools and techniques exist that can help an organization to comprehend information using a considerable small amount of time, pinpoint emerging trends, establish patterns and relationships, and communication of the story among others. (Chung, 2016) indicates that the initial step of data visualization involves understanding of data to be visualized, which includes cardinality and size.

Laying the ground work for efficient visualization also involves knowing the audience and understanding the manner in which that audience processes visual information. In addition, using visuals that convey in the simplest and the best form to the audience is also critical in the process of data visualization. After the groundwork stage, the next involves determination of the size of data since working with big data can be highly challenging. According to (Corvey et al., 2016), big data visualization introduces new challenges since accounting of dynamic velocities, different varieties, and huge volumes is required. In addition, the speed of data generation is very high compared to that of analysis and management. One of the common issue with big data visualization is selecting the best visual to represent information, whereby various options such as charts, graphs, exist with various types; for instance, a graph can be a bar or line graph.

According to (Corvey et al., 2016)predictive modelling and other categories of advanced analytics are built with robust software developed particularly for running sophisticated algorithms on huge data sets; for instance programming languages such as Python and R, and analytics tools like IBM SPSS and SAS. However, data managers and analysts, also highly rely on humble data visualization tools such as MS excel. (Chung, 2016) insists that data visualization performs crucial roles in data analysis and decision making that range from initial data exploration to develop predictive models, to analytical finding from the models reporting. Therefore, data visualization tools and techniques are critical components of the data analysts and scientists’ toolkit, whereby lack of those components makes the work of analytic teams almost impossible.

1.4.1.      Predictive Modelling

Predictive modelling is a technique used to visualize big data by using a sample of the data, whereby the behavior of the entire data is expected to behave in a similar manner as the sample data. For instance, some predictive models involve calculating the sample mean, standard deviation, and fitting the sample data into a distribution for further analysis and visualization. The results of the sample statistical analysis are assumed to spread across the entire data. According to (Cheong, 2011), sampling is the biggest challenge of big data predictive modelling, since the size of data might be very big such that the correct sample that can provide the correct estimates is also large for easy analysis.

However, (Corvey et al., 2016) notes that data scientists are day by day improving the predictive models, whereby, robust models such as upcoming product by ArcBest Technologies, which connects corporate customers in need of shipment serves with trucking companies. The model assists the ArcBest employees to match loads with carriers with a higher efficiency compared to doing the same manually. Similarly, at Macys.com, predictive models are used to generate marketing reports for the management regarding the performance of email campaigns and popular products.

Although big data predictive modelling is currently facing immense criticism and challenges, the level of adoption and progress indicates that the technique will achieve a lot of improvement in future. Robust models are expected in the market, which can estimate patterns and relationships of big data with a reduced margin of error.

1.4.2.      Machine Learning Techniques

Most of the machine learning techniques and tools discussed above can be utilized to visualize considerably large amount of data(Awan, 2014). Techniques such as regression modelling are used to analyze the characteristics of data whereby, patterns and relationship regarding a specific set of data can be established. Some of the machine learning methods, which can be used to enhance big data visibility include SVM algorithms, which are used mostly used to classify data from stock markets; hence, improving its visibility (Chung, 2016).

The energy function discussed above is alsoa widely used tool to improve visibility of large amount of data such as data regarding internet based social media. Therefore, (Grier et al., 2010) argues that robust data analysis and visualization tools are required. One such tool is the energy function that assists in providing an in depth analysis of online data and provides graphical presentation of output; hence highly improves visibility. According to (Dilrukish and Kasun, 2014), possibility of using powerful software to analyze J 48 decision trees process of classifying data makes algorithms highly favorable in visualization of big data. (Dilrukish and Kasun, 2014) argues that J 48 decision trees classification process is highly visible using software such as Weka, whereby several categories of graphs, and charts can be used to present data including several comparisons.

1.5.            Previous Studies Involving Various Users Credibility Analysis and Visualization Techniques and Tools

1.5.1.0.Twitter: A News Media

Immense research has been conducted in efforts to analyze the relevance of internet based social media especially Twitter as an agent of news disseminating. (Grier et al., 2010) revealed that twitter is one of the prominent news internet based social media, whereby eighty-five percent of discussions’ topics on twitter were found to be related to news. In the research, the patterns of tweeting activities and parameters particular to users such as followees and followers analysis versus retweeting/tweeting numbers, relationship was also highlighted.

A study by (Albalawi and Sixsmith, 2015) also utilized topic-modelling approach (unsupervised) to conduct a comparison of news topics extracted against those from New York Times, which is a conventional medium for news dissemination. The study revealed that; although twitter users post a less interest on world news compared to conventional media consumers, they still actively spread news regarding essential world events. (Chung, 2016) also conducted another critical study regarding twitter as a news media using nine hundred news events in 2010-2011, whereby the scholar, demonstrated techniques to map news’ event related tweets utilizing the energy function. The researcher proposed some strategies for mapping the tweets that act as novel event detection methods.

1.5.2.0.Assessing Credibility/Trust

Previous research by the computer science community has focused on issues of assessing, analyzing, computing, and characterizing credibility and trust of internet based social media (Dilrukish and Kasun, 2014). One of such studies was conducted by (Chung, 2016), whereby, the scholar developed Truthy,a tool for studying diffusion of information on twitter and computing the level of trustworthiness of micro-blogging, streaming publicly, that are related to a particular event, in a bid, to establish misinformation, political smears, and astroturfing, among other social media pollution categories. In the study, several cases of abuse by twitter consumers were presented usingTruthy, which is a live web service based on the above descriptions.

Figure 3: a screenshot of Truthy analysis (Chung, 2016).

Several researchers have also utilized the classical method of machine learning to establish the credibility of online social media content. (Choukri et al., n.d.)established that classifications techniques bearing some form of automation can be applied in differentiating news and conversational related topics and evaluated credibility of such approaches using varying twitter features. Using an algorithm known as J48 decision classification tree, the scholar scored a 70-80 percent precision and recall and evaluated the study results using data perceived by people as the ground truth. Features used in the study include topic, message, user, and features based on propagation, which enhanced observations like tweets with negative sentiments have a relationship with credible news and those without URLs are mostly related to news that are not credible.

(Corvey et al., 2012) argues that apart from the credibility of content shared on online social media, the users’ credibility is also critical. (Ghosh et al., 2012) conducted a study using automated ranking techniques to detect information sources on twitter credibility and identify anytrust expertise related to that source. In the study, it was also observed that network structure and content are very prominent features in the ranking of twitter users based on effective credibility.

Some previous studies also focused on analyzing genuine information sources during specific important world events. For instance, (Alrubaian et al., 2016) in an analysis of tweets posted during the Mumbai terrorist attacks, established that the largest number of information sources are unknown and possess a considerable low number of followers; hence, have a reduced reputation on twitter. The study indicated the necessity to come up with twitter information credibility assessing mechanisms that are automated.

In a follow up study, the scholar used SVM Rank, machine learning algorithms, and relevance feedback, techniques for information retrieval, to evaluate credibility of content on twitter. The researcher conducted an analysis of 14 events, with high impact, of 2011, whereby they established that 14 percent of posted tweets regarding an event were while 30 percent possessed situational informational about the event. The study also identified that only 17 percent of tweets related to an event possessed credible situational information about the event.

(Dilrukish and Kasun, 2014), also utilized a supervised Bayesian Network, which a technique for predicting tweets in emergency situations credibility, to analyze tweets generated in the 2011 England riots. In the study, a two-step methodology was proposed and evaluated, whereby step one involved a K-means function to for detecting emergencies and the second step a Bayesian Network structure learning function was utilized to determine the credibility of the information. The algorithm evaluation revealed an improvement compared to new techniques. (Chung, 2016) also used eight different event tweets to identify the credibility indicators in varying situations, whereby the study indicated tweets length, mention tweets, and URLs as the best credibility indicators The study also revealed that during emergencies, such features immensely increases.

(Chung, 2016)conducted a study utilizing a different approach than the one highlighted above, whereby the scholar carried out a survey to establish the perception of users concerning content on twitter. The study involved about two hundred participants to mark what was considered as the credibility, of users and content, indicators, whereby, the research established that people utilize features visible at a glance, such as user’s photo or username, to identify credibility of content (Awan, 2014).

In addition, (Chung, 2016) also proved that, using content alone, users are poor judges of credibility, whereby they are oftenly influenced by other pieces of information such as username. The study also revealed that a disparity exists between features utilized by search engines and those considered by the users as relevant regarding credibility. (Ghosh et al., 2012) also utilized a different approach to identify users with high value of trustworthiness and credibility, whereby the scholar established topic experts on tweeter. The technique used in the study was basedon the twitter crowd concepts, that is, twitter lists.

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1.6.            References

Albalawi, Yousef, and Jane Sixsmith. “Identifying Twitter Influencer Profiles for Health Promotion In Saudi Arabia”. Health Promotion International (2015).

Alrubaian, Majed, Muhammad Al-Qurishi, Mabrook Al-Rakhami, Mohammad Mehedi Hassan, and Atif Alamri. “Reputation-Based Credibility Analysis Of Twitter Social Network Users”. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience 29, no. 7 (2016): e3873.

Arakawa, Yui, Akihiro Kameda, Akiko Aizawa, and Takafumi Suzuki. “Adding Twitter-Specific Features To Stylistic Features For Classifying Tweets By User Type And Number Of Retweets”. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 65, no. 7 (2014): 1416-1423.

Awan, Imran. “Islamophobia and Twitter: A Typology Of Online Hate Against Muslims On Social Media”. Policy & Internet 6, no. 2 (2014): 133-150.

 Choukri, T. Declerck, M. U.Do?an, B. Maegaard, J. Mariani, J. Odijk, and S. Piperidis, Eds., European Language Resources Association (ELRA).

Chung, Jae Eun. “A Smoking Cessation Campaign On Twitter: Understanding The Use Of Twitter And Identifying Major Players In A Health Campaign”. Journal of Health Communication 21, no. 5 (2016): 517-526.

Corvey, W. J., Verma, S., Vieweg, S., Palmer, M., and Martin, J. H. Foundations of a multilayer annotation framework for twitter communications during crisis events. In Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’12) (Istanbul, Turkey, may 2012), N. C. C. Chair),

De Longueville, B., Smith, R. S., and Luraschi, G. ”omg, from here, i can see theflames!”: a use case of mining location based social networks to acquire spatio-temporal data on forest fires. In Proceedings of the 2009 International Workshop on Location Based Social Networks (New York, NY, USA, 2009), LBSN ’09, ACM, pp. 73–80.

Dilrukshi, Inoshika, and Kasun de Zoysa. “A Feature Selection Method For Twitter News Classification”. International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing 4, no. 4 (2014): 365-370.

France, Cheong, C. C., Social media data mining: A social network analysis of tweets
during the 2010-2011 australian floods. In PACIS (2011).

Ghosh, S., Sharma, N., Benevenuto, F., Ganguly, N., and Gummadi, K. Cognos:
crowdsourcing search for topic experts in microblogs. In Proceedings of the 35th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval (2012), SIGIR ’12.

Ghosh, S., Viswanath, B., Kooti, F., Sharma, N. K., Korlam, G., Benevenuto, F., Ganguly, N., and PhaniGummadi, K. Understanding and combating link farming
in the twitter social network. In Proceedings of the 21st international conference on WorldWide Web (2012), WWW ’12.

Grier, C., Thomas, K., Paxson, V., and Zhang, M. “@spam: the underground on 140 characters or less”, In Proceedings of the 17th ACM conference on Computer and
communications security (New York, NY, USA, 2010), CCS ’10, ACM, pp. 27–7.

Jungherr, Andreas. “The Logic Of Political Coverage On Twitter: Temporal Dynamics And Content”. Journal of Communication 64, no. 2 (2014): 239-259.

Kim, Young An, and Gun Woo Park. “Topic-Driven Socialrank: Personalized Search Result Ranking By Identifying Similar, Credible Users In A Social Network”. Knowledge-Based Systems 54 (2013): 230-242.

Polat, Burak. “Twitter User Behaviors In Turkey: A Content Analysis On Turkish Twitter Users”. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences (2014).

Reyes, Joseph Anthony L., and Tom Smith. “Analysing Labels, Associations, And Sentiments In Twitter On The Abu Sayyaf Kidnapping Of Viktor Okonek”. Terrorism and Political Violence (2015): 1-19.

Sharf, Zareen, and Anwar Us Saeed.”Twitter News Credibility Meter”. International Journal of Computer Applications 83, no. 6 (2013): 49-51.

Verma, Monika, Divya Divya, and Sanjeev Sofat. “Techniques to Detect Spammers In Twitter- A Survey”. International Journal of Computer Applications 85, no. 10 (2014): 27-32.

Zhang, Yifeng, and Xiaoqing Li. “Relative Superiority of Key Centrality Measures For Identifying Influencers on Social Media”. International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies 10, no. 4 (2014): 1-23.

Khmer kings

A Comparison of Angkor Wat and Bayon

Khmer kings used the act of building temples as a means to lay a claim to the powers and protection of the Hindu gods, as well as to express their control over people. The temples were not meant to be places for the believers to congregate in worship, but served as homes for the gods they were dedicated to. New kings had several avenues for proving that their power comes from above. One of them was to build an ostentatious residence for their god of choice. Each Khmer leader attempted to create a structure that was more luxurious and complex than that constructed by his predecessor. In so doing, the king would demonstrate his ability to amass the resources and energy required to create such a grand structure. Therefore, Khmer temples built by different kings possess distinct features, especially in terms of architecture and use, despite them having a similar fundamental purpose of housing the gods. Khmer kings

The wide range of differences between Angkor Wat and Bayon is representative of all ancient Khmer temples. Angkor Wat, located in the Siem Reap region in Cambodia, is considered to be one of the largest religious monuments in the world. The construction of the temple is estimated to have begun in 1116 CE, three years after king Suryavarman II ascended to the throne, and ended around 1150 following the king’s death (Jessup & Zephir 108). The monument was dedicated to Vishnu, the protector among the principle gods of the Hindu religion. By building Angkor Wat, the king intended to assure people that Vishnu was protecting them. However, the use of the temple as Suryavarman’s mausoleum after his death shows that the king was regarded as a god by his people. Notably, dedicating the temple to Vishnu was a deviation from the norm, because earlier rulers embraced the Shaiva tradition. Therefore, the monument has remained as one of the prominent religious centers in the world due to its uniqueness as compared to the rest of the ancient temples. Khmer kings

Figure 1: Angkor Wat Temple; A view from NorthWest: Source (Jessup 114)

On the other hand, Bayon is often referred to as the most beloved landmark in Cambodia. It is located next to the ruins of the ancient city Angkor Thom. Scholars have stated that the face towers of Bayon bear a stunning resemblance to king Jayavarman VII. Additionally, the monument is the last to be built in Angkor, and the only one that was dedicated to the Buddha. However, other smaller deities were encompassed to represent the various cities and districts of the kingdom. Therefore, the monument is distinct from the previous ones, such as Angkor Wat that was devoted to a specific Khmer god, due to its dedication to Buddha and its inclusion of small deities.

One of the most outstanding features of the building is the identical stone faces carved in sets of four and placed facing different cardinal directions. Moreover, the orientation of faces signified the omnipresence and higher position of the gods. It has been theorized that they depict Avalokitesvara, the god of compassion. As mentioned before, scholars have used the close resemblance of the over 200 faces in the temple towers to argue that they were a representation of the ruler Jayavarman VII. He was a celebrated and respected king because he led an army to expel invaders and salvage the capital of Cambodia. Therefore, the resemblance betweenJayavarman IV and the faces of the temple has led to an assumption that the king considered himself to be godlike because of his immense victory at war. Therefore, the monument is similar toAngkor Wat because it was used for religious purposes, as well as by the king to portray himself as god.  Khmer kings

IMG_0862

Figure 2: The Bayon Temple

The outstanding difference between Bayon and Agkor Wat is that the former was a house to Buddha, while the latter was dedicated to Hindu gods. Furthermore, the uncanny resemblance of the faces in Bayon to the sculptures of the king shows that he considered himself or was regarded as a bodhisattva, a person who had reached the highest level of enlightenment but did not ascend for the sake of all people. On the other hand, Agkor Wat was used to portray the king as a god by making it his mausoleum. Thus, one of the similarities between the two is that they were both used to portray kings as gods. However, the difference arises from the users of the temples, which were the people for Agkor Wat and the king for Bayon. Additionally, the temples are similar because they were used to house divine powers but differ in the number of gods housed, with Agkor Wat housing one god, while Bayon honored Buddha and multiple other deities. Therefore, the Monuments possess a wide range of similarities due to their fundamental purpose of housing divined powers but include a significant range of differences because they were built by different rulers. Khmer kings

Works Cited

Jessup, Helen Ibbitson. Art & Architecture of Cambodia. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004.

Jessup, Helen Ibbitson, and Thierry, Zephir. Sculpture of Angkor and Ancient Cambodia: Millenium of Glory. National Gallery of Art, 1997.