During early adulthood, people begin make important life decisions in three areas

During early adulthood, people begin make important life decisions in three areas: career, family, and health. Young adults establish patterns of nutrition and physical activity that can have either positive or negative effects on their physical development in later stages of adulthood. They also begin to make decisions about what career path to follow. At some point during early adulthood, individuals also choose either to marry or remain single, and decide whether or not to start a family. Consider the following example:

Jeff is 23 years old. He recently graduated from college with a business degree and took a managerial position with a midsize company. He likes his coworkers, but often finds himself bored with his work. Although he was active in college, recently he has gained about 10 pounds due to his sedentary job and lack of time to exercise. Jeff broke up with his college girlfriend after graduation, and since then he has dated a few different women, but hasn’t had another serious relationship. Jeff wonders what the remainder of his 20’s and his 30’s will bring.

Based on your reading, prepare a PowerPoint presentation that would help individuals like Jeff set goals related to career, health, and family. The presentations should discuss the relationship between lifestyle choices and health risks. In addition, it should address how factors like personality and attachment may influence both career- and family-related goals. Finally, address diversity in the presentation. Explain how your plan could be adapted to fit the needs of different socioeconomic or ethnic groups.

Your PowerPoint presentation should include an introduction, a conclusion, and detailed speaker’s notes. Include your references on one slide.

Develop a 6–8-slide presentation in PowerPoint format with speaker’s notes. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use the following file naming convention:

Personality Psyc Paper For Movie Good Will Hunting

Super last minute, I am so sorry.

PLEASE ONLY do it IF you can have it back to me in 6 HOURS!!!!


All instructions are in attachments. Just apply psychoanalytic theories to Good Will Hunting characters.

I even attached power points for Freud, Erikson, Horney, Maslow, Rogers, and Alder.


Write a two page paper from the movie – Good Will Hunting

• Incorporate in your paper any theories that you think applies to any of the characters in the movie (Will, Skylar, Dr. Maguire, Professor Lambeau and Chuckie).

o Freud – Unconscious, sexual drives and ego

o Erikson – Eight stages of Psychosocial Personality Dev.

o Horney – Ten Neurotic Needs

o Rogers – Dev. of the Self in Childhood – (regards)

o Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs

o Alder – The style of life, social interest and birth order

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Zimbardo Research Paper

MUST BE NEW AND ORIGINAL WORK NOT GIVEN TO OTHER STUDENTS. Write in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship in the accurate representation and attribution of sources; and display accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Include citations in the text and references at the end of the document in APA format.PLEASE READ INSTRUCTION CAREFULLY. IN TEXT CITATION AND MUST CITE ALL REFERENCE IN APA FORMAT. MUST ADHERE TO RUBRIC.



View the following segments from the “Classic Studies in Psychology” video:

  • Stanford Prison Experiment
  • Rebellion
  • The Results

Develop a 8-10 slide PowerPoint (with speaker notes)  discussing the impact of Dr. Zimbardo’s study on social psychology.

Include the following in your paper:

  • The value of the study in relation to social psychology
  • The relevance of the study in relation to contemporary world issues
  • The value of the study in relation to humanity as a whole
  • The problems and ethical concerns the study created
  • Current safeguards in place to reduce the likelihood of ethical concerns arising in research studies


SOC-100 Week 2 Topic 2 Quiz

Week 2 Topic 2: Quiz

Access the Quiz 2 attachment and answer each of the four questions. This is an open book quiz.  The answer to each question must be 100-125 words.  Complete by the end of Topic 2.

1.      What Life Course stage are you currently in according to the textbook?  Analyze the stage based on your own experience.  What are the similarities and the differences?

2.      Use the concepts of dramaturgy to analyze an everyday situation at work, school, or family.  Include the concepts of impressions management, sign-vehicles, team-work, or face-saving behaviors.

3.      From the interactionist perspective discuss how you engage in your “personal bubble” using the four “distance zones.”

4.      Give a brief discussion of three of the main agents of socialization in your life.  Which one was the most influential and why?

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

Unit 5 Discussion 1 Lin

Applying Critical Thinking

In Unit 4, you began locating and evaluating high-quality research to support your practice in the field of psychology. In this unit, you added critical thinking tools to your repertoire to further critique research and its relevancy to research questions and practice. You were introduced to these models that support critical thinking:

  • Bloom’s taxonomy
  • Facione’s core critical thinking skills.
  • Paul and Elder’s elements of thought.

For this discussion, compare and contrast these models.

  • What do you see as their strengths and weaknesses?
  • What do they share in common?
  • What does synthesize mean within the context of Bloom’s taxonomy and Granello’s 2001 article, “Promoting Cognitive Complexity in Graduate Written Work”?
  • How could you imagine using each as a practitioner-scholar working in your specialization?
  • Give an example of how you would use each model to evaluate some content in one of the articles you located for your research project.

If you have any trouble understanding these models or the strategies in the Granello article, “Promoting Cognitive Complexity in Graduate Written Work,” use this discussion to receive support from your peers and instructor to work through your challenges.

PS501 Foundations Of Professional Psychology (Graduate Course)

 Add at least one reference,  1 page discussion question, APA style, Attachments below

This week’s reading defined the scholar-practitioner model.

How does this model apply to your current studies and your future profession? Be sure to discuss both parts of the model in your plan. Discuss how a practitioner can further enhance his/her scholarly knowledge, even after educational and degree goals are met. What are some of your professional goals in psychology? What do you hope to accomplish through graduate study?

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SOCW-6111-Discussion Wk 9



Respond to at least two colleagues who identified a different article and provide feedback and/or support.

Colleague 1: Geraldine

A growing problem teens are having to deal with is teen dating violence. The statistics from the CDC are alarming. One statistic that stands out significantly is, “One in 10 high school students has experienced physical violence from a dating partner in the past year” (Carchedi, 2013, para. 1). The Internet-based Internet intervention site by the School Social Work Net on teen dating violence has some good resources for parents, teachers, and social workers. This site has links to evidence based programs that can be used for teaching purposes, as well information to sites like loveisrespect.org. This site is directed specifically for teens experiencing dating violence. When you first enter the site it has a safety alert that tells the user that computer use can be monitored by the offender and provides a phone number and directions to clear the browser history (National Domestic Violence Hotline, 2017). The teen can even do a live chat with an advocate. The advocate will go over safety planning, self-care, and referrals for the area the teen is in (National Domestic Violence Hotline, 2017). The site also provides information for a teen that is seeking help for their friend.

While I was working on base as a Domestic Abuse Victim Advocate I went to the local high schools that have a high population of military dependent students to talk about teen dating violence. I handed out information about loveisrespect.org sites and literature. I presented my talk to small and large groups. The smaller groups were the ones where I was asked some very concerning questions about issues that are happening here in Anchorage, Alaska schools. I even took one girl to the school social worker and we helped her with her situation. She had visible marks on her arm from a fight she had with her boyfriend that morning. It was an eye- opener.

The strength of loveisrespect. org program is that is provides a situation of privacy for the youth. The online and phone hotline advocacy provides 24/7/365 help, even in Spanish. The weakness is the same as with all hotline help lines. It does not provide face-to-face help for the teen. The advocates can provide all the information to the youth, but there is not a guarantee that the youth will follow through with the advice.


Carchedi, S. (2013). Teen dating violence interventions and resources. SSWN. Retrieved from


National Domestic Violence Hotline. (2017). Love is respect. Retrieved from http://www.loveisrespect.org/for-yourself/

Colleague 2: Georjetta

Internet-based intervention used with adolescents and locate an article on the use of mentoring or peer support programs for adolescents

Adolescent years of children can be very challenging. Lecroy and Willaims 2013 brings out that during the adolescent years physical changes take place more rapidly with the production of sex hormones, puberty, and appearance of secondary sex characteristics, therefore they need all the support they can get.

Describe the intervention and the underlying theory. Identify the target behaviors that this intervention is used to addressAssess the intervention

The internet based intervention I chose was the cognitive behavior therapy for adolescent depression.  The target group here is at risk children that are juvenile delinquent.  According to (Saranya, Darawan T., Hunsa, Petsunee, & Surinporn, 2017) CBT is a form of psychotherapy that can be offered as a self-help intervention with or without support from a CBT therapist or a trained professional such as a general practitioner, nurse, or community coach by making telephone calls, sending emails, or posting comments during a personal conference. NAT’s was the most significant cause of this population. NAT’s is when adolescents think negatively about themselves. CBT has been useful for the modification of the negative thinking that causes depression among youths with delinquency problems. This CBT focused on the youth from Thai and did their CBT via compute (computerized cognitive behavior therapy. The intervention process of the program followed the process of CBT included identifying, evaluating, modifying negative thoughts that are the cause of depression and problem solving. Another method during intervention used in mentoring. According to Thomas, Lorenzetti & Spragins 2013) “The National Mentoring Partnership organization, provides the simplest definition of youth mentoring:” A personal relationship in which a caring individual provides consistent companionship, support, and guidance aimed at developing the competence and character of a child or adolescent.”

Compare and Contrast

Both interventions turned out to be effective for the adolescent population. Both treatments goals were the same which was to better the child and both provided support. The CCBT taught different behavior modifications via computers. Mentoring is more face to face where your able to develop more of a relationship with client and possibly get to know them better. Regardless of which intervention used both can go hand in hand with each other.

Strength and Weaknesses

Although there have been several CCBT programs for reducing depression, there are limitations for their application in the treatment of depression among youths with delinquency problems. Results of the study revealed that the participants who received the CCBT program had lower mean scores of depressions immediately after completing the program. Even though CCBT therapy was effective a further study is needed for examining the sustainability of the long-term impacts of the program in reducing depression.


Respond to at least two colleagues who identified a different client and provide feedback and/or support.

Colleague 1: Tiffany

Suicide is a serious public health concern and learning the warning signs is very important.

The first step is to define the problem how big the problem is , when it occurs, and who it effects.

Step 2: Identify risk and protective factors It is not enough to know that suicide affects certain people in certain areas. We also need to know why. Develop programs to reduce suicide.

Step 3: Develop and test prevention strategies Using information gathered in research, and evaluate strategies to prevent suicide.

In the Brady case Brady was a teen who presented to his social worker as immature male for his age with low intelligence. Brady feared his father which caused him to have anxiety and depression due to his father’s abusive parenting. This alone and adding the death of his mother three years back could be a trigger point for suicide. Brady was experiencing low-self-esteem due to his father’s abusive behaviors towards him. Brady’s feelings of fear and his feelings or detachment from his father could create depression which could have lead to suicide.

The intervention I use would be family structural therapy. I would use tools such as genograms and ecomaps to build on the clients strengths. I would use these strengths to empower Brady. I would have individual sessions with both Brady and his father and then sessions together. I would also refer Brady’s father to parental classes. I would refer Brady to group with teens his age. I would brainstorm ideas together to make their life better by letting them pick he ideas and then trying them to better the relationship.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Suicide prevention: Youth suicide. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/suicide/index.html

Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. M. (Eds.). (2014b). Social work case studies: Concentration year. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital Source e-reader]. Working With Families: The Case of Brady (pp. 26–28)

Colleague 2: Tina

In the case of Tiffani, she feels that she was reused from an unsafe environment by Donald who became her boyfriend.  She was abused by a family member and she feels as no one seem to care that her mother did not really love her (Laureate Education, 2013a).  Tiffani was with Donald for two years and finds herself in a similar situation by being sold to another pimp although there were some positive things that Donald did for her (Laureate Education, 2013a).  Although Tiffani feels that she was saved from one negative environment she does not want to express the negative experience she has experience with Donald. The anxiety and depression she feels about being on the street, not making enough money and her home life that she feels she left behind although it is still occurring can lead to suicide. The stressful life events Tiffani have experience can lead to suicide such as being abused or not feeling loved by her family.  Some risk factors that Tiffani is showing is sexual behavior and the experience of being abused are common risk factors in adolescent (LeCroy & Williams, 2013). Tiffani is having environmental problems along with establishing a healthy relationship.  There is a disconnection that she has such as an attachment style that she did not effectively establish now is affecting her relationships.  This determines how Tiffani reacts to her needs and how she will go about getting them met.

Suicide is a serious problem that affect many young people.  The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) states that suicide is one of the leading cause for children who are between the age of 10 and 24. Suicide behavior increase during the adolescence phase.  Common signs that Tiffani is expression is feeling like there is no solution. She has withdrawn from her family.  She has experience stressful life events. There is denial and there is no confident in herself to express her negative experience with Donald. There is a lack of self-awareness and a weak family system, resources and support. She has not address her past environment or new environment.

Psychosocial intervention has been beneficial for individuals such as adolescent who express depression and suicide behavior (Stanley et al., 2009). We want to prevent Tiffani from committing suicide, so it is beneficial to address the warning signs.    Psychotherapy or talk therapy can help reduce suicide risk, CBT can help people establish new ways to deal with stressful situations (National Institute of Mental Health, 2017). By utilizing Cognitive behavior therapy-suicide prevention (CBT-SP) its goal is to help reduce any suicidal risk factors that Tiffani may be experiencing. This type of intervention is principals of CBT and dialectical behavioral therapy and is targeted treatments for suicidal, depression in adolescents or adults (Stanley et al., 2009). Want to help Tiffani regulate any emotions by developing strategies and problem-solving strategies.  Want to enhance coping and prevent suicidal behavior (Stanley et al., 2009).

Tiffani could benefit from one on one counseling but also the family system needs to be rebuild.  As a social worker, I will educate Tiffani on depression and how depression can lead to suicidal indications and how many risk factors lead to suicide or attempts of suicide. This will be done in a one-on-one session and will help Tiffani understand her feelings and new strategies to manage stress.  The goal is to help Tiffani work through any anxiety or depression she may be experience regarding her old environment or current environment. There must be a healthier connection with her family establish. Many suicidal crises occur for adolescents within their environment that include abuse, family dysfunction, and problematic relationships and CBT-SP can help address these issues in family therapy (Stanley et al., 2009). Family therapy would also be beneficial for Tiffani to express her concerns and feelings to her mother and allow the parent to meet with the therapist for family session to focus on how the anxiety or depression that Tiffani is experiencing can lead to suicide and ways to reduce suicide risk factors.  The family problems can be addressed to the extent that they are viewed by the client to prevent any suicide attempts (Stanley et al., 2009).  Although individual and family counseling needs to be done first Tiffani can benefit from group counseling in the future. After Tiffani has handle individual counseling to work on herself and some of the goals that has been establish and addressing family issues than group counseling can come next.  Group counseling can allow Tiffani a chance to meet other individuals who have experience similar situations as her. This can allow her to share her experience and listen to others and share strategies on how to overcome or how others have overcome the situations they have experience. The goal is to do individual counseling, then family therapy, then if Tiffani would like group therapy.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Suicide prevention: Youth suicide. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pub/youth_suicide.html

Laureate Education (Producer). (2013a). Bradley family: Episode 2 [Video file]. Retrieved fromhttps://class.waldenu.edu

LeCroy, C. W., & Williams, L. R. (2013). Intervention with adolescents. In M. Holosko, C. Dulmus, & K. Sowers (Eds.), Social work practice with individuals and families: Evidence-informed assessments and interventions (pp. 97–124). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

National Institute of Mental Health, (2017). Suicide prevention. Retrieved from: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/suicide-prevention/index.shtml

Stanley, B., Brown, G., Brent, D. A., Wells, K., Poling, K., Curry, J.,  & Goldstein, T. (2009). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP): treatment model, feasibility, and acceptability. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(10), 1005-1013.

Psychology Final Exam


1. Which of the following is one of the greatest strengths of the social cognitive perspective of personality?

a. It recognizes that the five stages of psychosexual development can, in fact, be progressed through without fixation, struggle, or strife.
b. It suggests that the genetic limitations with which we are born can be overcome.
c. It offers hope to each human being that self-actualization is a reasonable and attainable goal.
d. It offers strategies for a person to improve his or her own life, as it recognizes the importance of the individual in the construction of his or her own reality.

2. Based on your knowledge of the theories of Lawrence Kohlberg, which part of the brain would help with the reasoning of something like the Heinz Dilemma?

a. The prefrontal cortex
b. The transcranial pathway
c. The visual cortex
d. The rapid subcortical pathway

3. One way that therapists assist clients suffering from a phobia is through a technique called systematic desensitization. The person is gradually exposed to the trigger of their fear until they learn to respond with relaxation instead of panic and dread. This uses the principle of __________, which suggests that repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to familiarity and comfort.

a. relaxation
b. habituation
c. diminuation
d. minimization

4. Which stage of sleep is characterized by an increase in delta wave activity in the brain?

a. REM sleep
b. Stage 1
c. Stage 2
d. Stage 3

5. One of the earliest theories of multiple types of intelligence was that of Raymond Cattell, who suggested that intelligence can be divided up into two types:

a. intrapersonal and interpersonal
b. emotional and intellectual
c. practical and creative
d. fluid and crystallized

6. Why is it so important that people living with HIV or AIDS find ways of reducing the stress in their lives?

a. Because this illness compromises the immune system, and having too much stress will further limit the body’s ability to fight illness.
b. Because HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, cannot live without a ready supply of adrenaline and noradrenaline to feed on. These are the neurotransmitters that are released by people who have too much stress in their lives.
c. Because the medications used to treat these illness cannot be effective in individuals who have high stress due to the negative interaction of the drugs and cortisol, the stress hormone.
d. Because the treatment of these illnesses requires a strict regimen of medication compliance, and research has shown that those who live with high amounts of stress are more forgetful and therefore more likely to miss a dose of their crucial, life-saving medication.

7. Psychologist Stewart Page had an associate who called 180 people who had advertised __________, but when they found out that the person calling was “about to be released from a mental health facility,” they were suddenly quick to become distant. This study demonstrated the pervasiveness of stigma attached to mental illness in the 1970s

a. job openings
b. rooms for rent
c. the need for a babysitter
d. a desire to purchase a vehicle

8. In 2005 the United States Supreme Court outlawed the practice of using capital punishment (the death penalty) for juvenile offenders.What was the basis of this ruling?

a. The recognition that using the death penalty on juveniles presented a clear risk of unnecessary pain, which would violate the constitutional prohibition on “cruel and unusual punishment.”
b. The recognition that juveniles have a biological deficiency in their ability to use good judgment.
c. The recognition that putting juveniles to death would be more of a punishment for their families than for the juveniles themselves.
d. The recognition that juveniles are psychologically incapable of being responsible for their own actions.

9. Which of the following facts about the James-Lange theory of emotions is true?

a. James was older than Lange, which is why his name came first in the theory

b. James and Lange did not know each other, and proposed the same theory at the exact same time

c. Lange was James’s teacher, and he agreed to let James’s name come first to forward his career

d. James and Lange worked together for over thirty years before their theory was finally accepted in mainstream psychology

10. While Alfred Binet is generally credited with creating the first test used to measure intelligence, this is actually a bit of a mistake. The test that he developed, in fact, measured a child’s:

a. processing speed

b. mental age

c. mathematics skills

d. verbal fluency

SOCW-6121-Discussion Wk 2

Discussion 1: Family Assessment

The first step in helping a client is conducting a thorough assessment. The clinical social worker must explore multiple perspectives in order to develop a complete understanding of the situation. From this understanding, the social worker is able to recognize the client’s strengths and develop effective strategies for change.

For this Discussion, review the “Cortez Family” case history.

· Post your description of how micro-, mezzo-, or macro-levels of practice aid social workers in assessing families. Assess Paula Cortez’s situation using all three of these levels of practice, and identify two strengths and/or solutions in each of these levels.

· Describe the value in strength-based solutions.

References (use 3 or more)

Holosko, M. J., Dulmus, C. N., & Sowers, K. M. (2013). Social work practice with individuals and families: Evidence-informed assessments and interventions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

· Chapter 9, “Assessment of Families” (pp. 237–264)

Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. (Eds.). (2013). Sessions case histories. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing.

· “The Cortez Family” (pp. 23–25)

Smokowski, P. R., Rose, R., & Bacallao, M. L. (2008). Acculturation and Latino family processes: How cultural involvement, biculturalism, and acculturation gaps influence family dynamics. Family Relations, 57(3), 295–308.

Discussion 2: Circumplex Model

Understanding the level of cohesion of a family system is important in order to determine an effective treatment plan. Olson (2000) developed the Circumplex Model, which has been used in the areas of marital therapy and with families dealing with terminal illness.

For this Discussion, you again draw on the “Cortez Family” case history.

· Post your description of the Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems and how it serves as a framework to assess family systems. 

· Apply this framework in assessing the Cortez family. Use the three dimensions (cohesion, flexibility, and communication) of this model to assess and analyze. Describe how assessing these dimensions assists the social worker in treatment planning.

References (use 3 or more)

Holosko, M. J., Dulmus, C. N., & Sowers, K. M. (2013). Social work practice with individuals and families: Evidence-informed assessments and interventions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

· Chapter 9, “Assessment of Families” (pp. 237–264)

Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. (Eds.). (2013). Sessions case histories. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing.

· “The Cortez Family” (pp. 23–25)

Smokowski, P. R., Rose, R., & Bacallao, M. L. (2008). Acculturation and Latino family processes: How cultural involvement, biculturalism, and acculturation gaps influence family dynamics. Family Relations, 57(3), 295–308.

Olson, D. H. (2000). Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems. Journal of Family Therapy, 22(2), 144–167.

The Cortez Family

Paula is a 43-year-old HIV-positive Latina woman originally from Colombia. She is bilingual, fluent in both Spanish and English. Paula lives alone in an apartment in Queens, NY. She is divorced and has one son, Miguel, who is 20 years old. Paula maintains a relationship with her son and her ex-husband, David (46). Paula raised Miguel until he was 8 years old, at which time she was forced to relinquish custody due to her medical condition. Paula is severely socially isolated as she has limited contact with her family in Colombia and lacks a peer network of any kind in her neighborhood. Paula identifies as Catholic, but she does not consider religion to be a big part of her life. Paula came from a moderately well-to-do family. She reports suffering physical and emotional abuse at the hands of both her parents, who are alive and reside in Colombia with Paula’s two siblings. Paula completed high school in Colombia, but ran away when she was 17 years old because she could no longer tolerate the abuse at home. Paula became an intravenous drug user (IVDU), particularly of cocaine and heroin. David, who was originally from New York City, was one of Paula’s “drug buddies.” The two eloped, and Paula followed David to the United States. Paula continued to use drugs in the United States for several years; however, she stopped when she got pregnant with Miguel. David continued to use drugs, which led to the failure of their marriage. Once she stopped using drugs, Paula attended the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT) in New York City. Upon completing her BA, Paula worked for a clothing designer, but realized her true passion was painting. She has a collection of more than 100 drawings and paintings, many of which track the course of her personal and emotional journey. Paula held a full-time job for a number of years before her health prevented her from working. She is now unemployed and receives Supplemental Security Insurance (SSI) and Medicaid. Paula was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. She experiences rapid cycles of mania and depression when not properly medicated, and she also has a tendency toward paranoia. Paula has a history of not complying with her psychiatric medication treatment because she does not like the way it makes her feel. She often discontinues it without telling her psychiatrist. Paula has had multiple psychiatric hospitalizations but has remained out of the hospital for at least five years. Paula accepts her bipolar diagnosis, but demonstrates limited insight into the relationship between her symptoms and her medication. Paula was diagnosed HIV positive in 1987. Paula acquired AIDS several years later when she was diagnosed with a severe brain infection and a T-cell count less than 200. Paula’s brain infection left her completely paralyzed on the right side. She lost function of her right arm and hand, as well as the ability to walk. After a long stay in an acute care hospital in New York City, Paula was transferred to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) where she thought she would die. It is at this time that Paula gave up custody of her son. However, Paula’s condition improved gradually. After being in the SNF for more than a year, Paula regained the ability to walk, although she does so with a severe limp. She also regained some function in her right arm. Her right hand (her dominant hand) remains semiparalyzed and limp. Over the course of several years, Paula taught herself to paint with her left hand and was able to return to her beloved art. In 1996, when highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) became available, Paula began treatment. She responded well to HAART and her HIV/AIDS was well controlled. In addition to her HIV/AIDS disease, Paula is diagnosed with hepatitis C (Hep C). While this condition was controlled, it has reached a point where Paula’s doctor is recommending she begin treatment. Paula also has significant circulatory problems, which cause her severe pain in her lower extremities. She uses prescribed narcotic pain medication to control her symptoms. Paula’s circulatory problems have also led to chronic ulcers on her feet that will not heal. Treatment for her foot ulcers demands frequent visits to a wound care clinic. Paula’s pain paired with the foot ulcers make it difficult for her to ambulate and leave her home. As with her psychiatric medication, Paula has a tendency not to comply with her medical treatment. She often disregards instructions from her doctors and resorts to holistic treatments like treating her ulcers with chamomile tea. Working with Paula can be very frustrating because she is often doing very well medically and psychiatrically. Then, out of the blue, she stops her treatment and deteriorates quickly. I met Paula as a social worker employed at an outpatient comprehensive care clinic located in an acute care hospital in New York City. The clinic functions as an interdisciplinary operation and follows a continuity of care model. As a result, clinic patients are followed by their physician and social worker on an outpatient basis and on an inpatient basis when admitted to the hospital. Thus, social workers interact not only with doctors from the clinic, but also with doctors from all services throughout the hospital. After working with Paula for almost six months, she called to inform me that she was pregnant. Her news was shocking because she did not have a boyfriend and never spoke of dating. Paula explained that she met a man at a flower shop, they spoke several times, he visited her at her apartment, and they had sex. Paula thought he was a “stand up guy,” but recently everything had changed. Paula began to suspect that he was using drugs because he had started to become controlling and demanding. He showed up at her apartment at all times of the night demanding to be let in. He called her relentlessly, and when she did not pick up the phone, he left her mean and threatening messages. Paula was fearful for her safety. Given Paula’s complex medical profile and her psychiatric diagnosis, her doctor, psychiatrist, and I were concerned about Paula maintaining the pregnancy. We not only feared for Paula’s and the baby’s health, but also for how Paula would manage caring for a baby. Paula also struggled with what she should do about her pregnancy. She seriously considered having an abortion. However, her Catholic roots paired with seeing an ultrasound of the baby reinforced her desire to go through with the pregnancy. The primary focus of treatment quickly became dealing with Paula’s relationship with the baby’s father. During sessions with her psychiatrist and me, Paula reported feeling fearful for her safety. The father’s relentless phone calls and voicemails rattled Paula. She became scared, slept poorly, and her paranoia increased significantly. During a particular session, Paula reported that she had started smoking to cope with the stress she was feeling. She also stated that she had stopped her psychiatric medication and was not always taking her HAART. When we explored the dangers of Paula’s actions, both to herself and the baby, she indicated that she knew what she was doing was harmful but she did not care. After completing a suicide assessment, I was convinced that Paula was decompensating quickly and at risk of harming herself and/or her baby. I consulted with her psychiatrist, and Paula was involuntarily admitted to the psychiatric unit of the hospital. Paula was extremely angry at me for the admission. She blamed me for “locking her up” and not helping her. Paula remained on the unit for 2 weeks. During this stay she restarted her medications and was stabilized. I tried to visit Paula on the unit, but the first two times I showed up she refused to see me. Eventually, Paula did agree to see me. She was still angry, but she was able to see that I had acted with her best interest in mind, and we were able to repair our relationship. As Paula prepared for discharge, she spoke more about the father and the stress that had driven her to the admission in the first place. Paula agreed that despite her fears she had to do something about the situation. I helped Paula develop a safety plan, educated her about filing for a restraining order, and referred her to the AIDS Law Project, a not-for-profit organization that helps individuals with HIV handle legal issues. With my support and that of her lawyer, Paula filed a police report and successfully got the restraining order. Once the order was served, the phone calls and visits stopped, and Paula regained a sense of control over her life. From a medical perspective, Paula’s pregnancy was considered “high risk” due to her complicated medical situation. Throughout her pregnancy, Paula remained on HAART, pain, and psychiatric medication, and treatment for her Hep C was postponed. During the pregnancy the ulcers on Paula’s feet worsened and she developed a severe bone infection, ostemeylitis, in two of her toes. Without treatment the infection was extremely dangerous to both Paula and her baby. Paula was admitted to a medical unit in the hospital where she started a 2-week course of intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Unfortunately, the antibiotics did not work, and Paula had to have portions of two of her toes amputated with limited anesthesia due to the pregnancy, extending her hospital stay to nearly a month. The condition of Paula’s feet heightened my concern and the treatment team’s concerns about Paula’s ability to care for her baby. There were multiple factors to consider. In the immediate term, Paula was barely able to walk and was therefore unable to do anything to prepare for the baby’s arrival (e.g., gather supplies, take parenting class, etc.). In the medium term, we needed to address how Paula was going to care for the baby day-to-day, and we needed to think about how she would care for the baby at home given her physical limitations (i.e., limited ability to ambulate and limited use of her right hand) and her current medical status. In addition, we had to consider what she would do with the baby if she required another hospitalization. In the long term, we needed to think about permanency planning for the baby or for what would happen to the baby if Paula died. While Paula recognized the importance of all of these issues, her anxiety level was much lower than mine and that of her treatment team. Perhaps she did not see the whole picture as we did, or perhaps she was in denial. She repeatedly told me, “I know, I know. I’m just going to do it. I raised my son and I am going to take care of this baby too.” We really did not have an answer for her limited emotional response, we just needed to meet her where she was and move on. One of the things that amazed me most about Paula was that she had a great ability to rally people around her. Nurses, doctors, social workers: we all wanted to help her even when she tried to push us away. The Cortez Family David Cortez: father, 46 Paula Cortez: mother, 43 Miguel Cortez: son, 20. While Paula was in the hospital unit, we were able to talk about the baby’s care and permanency planning. Through these discussions, Paula’s social isolation became more and more evident. Paula had not told her parents in Colombia that she was having a baby. She feared their disapproval and she stated, “I can’t stand to hear my mother’s negativity.” Miguel and David were aware of the pregnancy, but they each had their own lives. David was remarried with children, and Miguel was working and in school full-time. The idea of burdening him with her needs was something Paula would not consider. There was no one else in Paula’s life. Therefore, we were forced to look at options outside of Paula’s limited social network. After a month in the hospital, Paula went home with a surgical boot, instructions to limit bearing weight on her foot, and a list of referrals from me. Paula and I agreed to check in every other day by telephone. My intention was to monitor how she was feeling, as well as her progress with the referrals I had given her. I also wanted to provide her with support and encouragement that she was not getting from anywhere else. On many occasions, I hung up the phone frustrated with Paula because of her procrastination and lack of follow-through. But ultimately she completed what she needed to for the baby’s arrival. Paula successfully applied for WIC, the federal Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, and was also able to secure a crib and other baby essentials. Paula delivered a healthy baby girl. The baby was born HIV negative and received the appropriate HAART treatment after birth. The baby spent a week in the neonatal intensive care unit, as she had to detox from the effects of the pain medication Paula took throughout her pregnancy. Given Paula’s low income, health, and Medicaid status, Paula was able to apply for and receive 24/7 in-home child care assistance through New York’s public assistance program. Depending on Paula’s health and her need for help, this arrangement can be modified as deemed appropriate. Miguel did take a part in caring for his half sister, but his assistance was limited. Ultimately, Paula completed the appropriate permanency planning paperwork with the assistance of the organization The Family Center. She named Miguel the baby’s guardian should something happen to her.

Human Development Personal Response Paper

Textbook, pages 253-256 (LO 6.16: Parenting Styles):


Parents are a key part of children’s lives everywhere, but how parents view their role and their approaches to discipline and punishment vary widely. First, we look at an influential model of parenting “styles” based on American parenting, then we look at views of parenting based in other cultures.

Parenting “Styles”

LO 6.16 Specify the four types of parenting “styles” and identify the cultural limitations of this model.

Have you heard the joke about the man who, before he had any children, had five theories about how they should be raised? Ten years later he had five children and no theories.

Well, jokes aside, most parents do have ideas about how best to raise children, even after they have had children for awhile (Harkness et al., 2015; Tamis-LeMonda et al., 2008). In research, the investigation of this topic has often involved the study of parenting styles; that is, the practices that parents exhibit in relation to their children and their beliefs about those practices. This research originated in the United States and has involved mainly American children and their parents, although it has now been applied in some other countries as well.

Four Parenting Styles

For over 50 years, American scholars have engaged in research on parenting styles, and the results have been quite consistent (Bornstein & Bradley, 2014; Collins & Laursen, 2004; Maccoby & Martin, 1983). Virtually all prominent scholarship on parenting has described it in terms of two dimensions: demandingness and responsiveness (also known by other terms such as control and warmth). Parental demandingness is the degree to which parents set down rules and expectations for behavior and require their children to comply with them. Parental responsiveness is the degree to which parents are sensitive to their children’s needs and express love, warmth, and concern.

Various scholars have combined these two dimensions to describe different kinds of parenting styles. For many years, the best known and most widely used conception of parenting styles was the one articulated by Diana Baumrind (1968, 1971, 1991). Her research on middle-class White American families, along with the research of other scholars inspired by her ideas, has identified four distinct parenting styles (Collins & Laursen, 2004; Maccoby & Martin, 1983; Pinquart, 2017; Steinberg, 2000).

Authoritative parents are high in demandingness and high in responsiveness. They set clear rules and expectations for their children. Furthermore, they make clear what the consequences will be if their children do not comply, and they make those consequences stick if necessary. However, authoritative parents do not simply “lay down the law” and then enforce it rigidly. A distinctive feature of authoritative parents is that they explain the reasons for their rules and expectations to their children, and they willingly engage in discussion with their children over issues of discipline, sometimes leading to negotiation and compromise. For example, a child who wants to eat a whole bag of candy would not simply be told “No!” by an authoritative parent but something like, “No, it wouldn’t be healthy and it would be bad for your teeth.” Authoritative parents are also loving and warm toward their children, and they respond to what their children need and desire.

Authoritarian parents are high in demandingness but low in responsiveness. They require obedience from their children, and they punish disobedience without compromise. None of the verbal give-and-take common with authoritative parents is allowed by authoritarian parents. They expect their commands to be followed without dispute or dissent. To continue with the candy example, the authoritarian parent would respond to the child’s request for a bag of candy simply by saying “No!” with no explanation. Also, authoritarian parents show little in the way of love or warmth toward their children. Their demandingness takes place without responsiveness, in a way that shows little emotional attachment and may even be hostile.

Permissive parents are low in demandingness and high in responsiveness. They have few clear expectations for their children’s behavior, and they rarely discipline them. Instead, their emphasis is on responsiveness. They believe that children need love that is truly “unconditional.” They may see discipline and control as having the potential to damage their children’s healthy tendencies for developing creativity and expressing themselves however they wish. They provide their children with love and warmth and give them a great deal of freedom to do as they please.

Disengaged parents are low in both demandingness and responsiveness. Their goal may be to minimize the amount of time and emotion they devote to parenting. Thus, they require little of their children and rarely bother to correct their behavior or place clear limits on what they are allowed to do. They also express little in the way of love or concern for their children. They may seem to have little emotional attachment to them. Table 6.1 provides a summary of the four styles of parenting.

The Effects of Parenting Styles on Children

A great deal of research has been conducted on how parenting styles influence children’s development. In general, authoritative parenting is associated with the most favorable outcomes, at least by American standards. Children who have authoritative parents tend to be independent, self-assured, creative, and socially skilled (Baumrind, 1991; Collins & Laursen, 2004; Steinberg, 2000; Williams et al., 2009). They also tend to do well in school and to get along well with their peers and with adults (Hastings et al., 2007; Spera, 2005). Authoritative parenting helps children develop characteristics such as empathy, optimism and self-regulation that in turn have positive effects on a wide range of behaviors (Jackson et al., 2005; O’Reilly & Peterson, 2014; Purdie et al., 2004).

All the other parenting styles are associated with some negative outcomes, although the type of negative outcome varies depending on the specific parenting style (Baumrind, 1991; Pinquart, 2017). Children with authoritarian parents tend to be less self-assured, less creative, and less socially adept than other children. Boys with authoritarian parents are more often aggressive and unruly, whereas girls are more often anxious and unhappy (Bornstein & Bradley, 2014; Russell et al., 2003). Children with permissive parents tend to be immature and lack self-control. Because they lack self-control, they have difficulty getting along with peers and teachers (Linver et al., 2002). Children with disengaged parents tend to be impulsive. Partly as a consequence of their impulsiveness, and partly because disengaged parents do little to monitor their activities, children with disengaged parents tend to have higher rates of behavior problems (Pelaez et al., 2008). Table 6.2 provides a summary of the different child behaviors associated with each of the four styles of parenting.

A More Complex Picture of Parenting Effects

Although parents undoubtedly affect their children profoundly by their parenting, the process is not nearly as simple as the cause-and-effect model just described. Sometimes discussions of parenting make it sound as though Parenting Style A automatically and inevitably produces Child Type X. However, enough research has taken place by now to indicate that the relationship between parenting styles and children’s development is considerably more complex than that (Bornstein & Bradley, 2014; Lamb & Lewis, 2005; Parke & Buriel, 2006; Pinquart, 2017). Not only are children affected by their parents, but parents are affected by their children. This principle is referred to by scholars as reciprocal or bidirectional effects between parents and children (Combs-Ronto et al., 2009).A photo shows a little girl screaming while a woman behind her looks away.How does the idea of reciprocal effects complicate claims of the effects of parenting styles?

Recall our discussion of evocative genotype → environment effects in Chapter 2. Children are not like billiard balls that head predictably in the direction they are propelled. They bring personalities and desires of their own to the parent–child relationship. Thus, children may evoke certain behaviors from their parents. An especially aggressive child may evoke authoritarian parenting; perhaps the parents find that authoritative explanations of the rules are simply ignored, and their responsiveness diminishes as a result of the child’s repeated disobedience and disruptiveness. An especially mild-tempered child may evoke permissive parenting, because parents may see no point in setting specific rules for a child who has no inclination to do anything wrong anyway.

Does this research discredit the claim that parenting styles influence children? No, but it does modify it. Parents certainly have beliefs about what is best for their children, and they try to express those beliefs through their parenting behavior (Alwin, 1988; Harkness et al., 2015; Way et al., 2007). However, parents’ actual behavior is affected not only by what they believe is best but also by how their children behave toward them and respond to their parenting (Knafo-Noam et al., 2019). Being an authoritative parent is easier if your child responds to your demandingness and responsiveness with compliance and love, and not so easy if your love is rejected and your rules and the reasons you provide for them are rejected. Parents whose efforts to persuade their children through reasoning and discussion fall on deaf ears may be tempted either to demand compliance (and become more authoritarian) or to give up trying (and become permissive or disengaged).

Parenting Styles Worldwide

So far we have looked at the parenting styles research based mainly on White middle-class American families. What does research worldwide indicate about parenting and its effects in early childhood?

One important observation is the rarity of the authoritative parenting style (Bornstein & Bradley, 2014; Harkness et al., 2015). Remember, a distinctive feature of authoritative parents is that they do not rely on the authority of the parental role to ensure that children comply with their commands and instructions. They do not simply declare the rules and expect to be obeyed. On the contrary, authoritative parents explain the reasons for what they want children to do and engage in discussion over the guidelines for their children’s behavior (Baumrind, 1971, 1991; Steinberg & Levine, 1997).

Outside of the West, however, this is an extremely rare way of parenting. In traditional cultures, parents expect their authority to be obeyed, without question and without requiring an explanation (LeVine et al., 2008; LeVine & LeVine, 2016). This is true in nearly all developing countries as well as developed countries outside the West, most notably Asian countries such as Japan and South Korea (Tseng, 2004; Zhang & Fuligni, 2006). Asian cultures have a tradition of filial piety, meaning that children are expected to respect, obey, and revere their parents throughout life (Lieber et al., 2004; Lum et al., 2016). The role of parent carries greater inherent authority than it does in the West. Parents are not supposed to provide reasons why they should be respected and obeyed. The simple fact that they are parents and their children are children is viewed as sufficient justification for their authority.

In Latin American cultures, too, the authority of parents is viewed as paramount. The Latino cultural belief system places a premium on the idea of respeto, which emphasizes respect for and obedience to parents and elders, especially the father (Cabrera & Garcia Coll, 2004; Espinoza-Hernández et al., 2017). The role of the parent is considered to be enough to command authority, without requiring that the parents explain their rules to their children. Another pillar of Latino cultural beliefs is familismo, which emphasizes the love, closeness, and mutual obligations of Latino family life (Halgunseth et al., 2006).

Does this mean that the typical parenting style in non-Western cultures is authoritarian? No, although scholars have sometimes come to this erroneous conclusion. It would be more accurate to state that the parenting-styles model is a cultural model, rooted in the American majority culture, and does not apply well to most other cultures. Of course, children everywhere need to have parents or other caregivers provide care for them in early childhood and beyond, and across cultures parents provide some combination of warmth and control. However, “responsiveness” is a distinctly American kind of warmth, emphasizing praise and physical affection, and “demandingness” is a distinctly American kind of control, emphasizing explanation and negotiation rather than the assertion of parental authority. Other cultures have their own culturally based forms of warmth and control, but across cultures, warmth rarely takes the American form of praise, and control rarely takes the American form of explanation and negotiation (Harkness et al., 2015; Matsumoto & Yoo, 2006; Miller, 2004; Wang & Tamis-LeMonda, 2003).

Even within American society, the authoritative style is mainly dominant among White, middle-class families (Bornstein & Bradley, 2014). Most American minority cultures, including African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos, have been classified by researchers as “authoritarian,” but this is inaccurate and results from applying to them a model that was based on the White majority culture (Chao & Tseng, 2002). Each minority culture has its own distinctive form of warmth, but all tend to emphasize obeying parental authority rather than encouraging explanation and negotiation. Hence the White, middle class, American model of parenting styles cannot really be applied to them.

Within cultures, parenting varies depending on the personalities of the parents, their goals for their children, and the characteristics of the children that evoke particular parenting responses. Overall, however, the dominant approach to parenting in a culture reflects certain things about underlying cultural beliefs, such as the value of interdependence versus independence and the status of parental authority over children (Giles-Sims & Lockhart, 2005; Harkness et al., 2015; Hulei et al., 2006). The cultural context of parenting is so crucial that what looks like the same parental behavior in two different cultures can have two very different effects, as we will see in the next section.

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