Plying Epidemiology

Applying Epidemiology


Ashford 3: – Week 2 – Assignment

Applying Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. More specifically, it is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health problems. Using any of the epidemiological techniques outlined in the chapters from this week’s reading, address the questions for one of the case studies outlined below.

There are two parts to this assignment:

Part I: Provide a brief statement of the investigative issue. Describe the epidemiological steps you would take by addressing the questions asked within the case study you select.

Part II: Address the questions noted at the end of your selected case study. Your paper should be at least four pages in length, but can exceed this depending on how much detail you provide on the epidemiological steps you take for your case. You should use at least one additional scholarly source in addition to the textbook. Format your paper and all citations according to APA style guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Carefully review the  Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.





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Annotated Bib: DUE IN 8 HOURS!!!

Due by 8pm—> in 8 hours!

Step One:

5 peer reviewed articles on:

  Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans


Step Two

-Complete the first introduction for the paper.


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Relapse Prevention Plan

Read the “Jed Assessment Case Study” and imagine that Jed is your client. Complete the relapse prevention plan worksheet by developing a relapse prevention plan for Jed. Use third person (i.e., Jed will or the client will) and assume that the two of you have formulated the plan together.

APA style is not required but solid academic writing is expected.

This assignment uses a scoring guide. Please review the scoring guide prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.


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Psychological Assessment I-A18

 Assignment 18 complete on Frank…. Frank’s information below:

A description of the content for each of the main sections of your report follows:

Identification and Referral

·         Client’s name, age, marital status, ethnicity, gender.

·          Describe the setting, including where the testing took place, how the  client travelled there (or if you went to the client’s home), if he or  she was on time and accompanied by anyone.

·          Reason for testing at this time, including the referral source (can be a  self-referral or a fictitious referrer) and the information sought by  the referrer.

·         Presenting problems and symptoms.

There  should be one or more referral questions to be answered by your  assessment.  These questions will be answered in your “Recommendations”  section and the answers should flow logically from your findings.   Some  common referral questions for psychological testing include:

·         Mental health diagnosis and treatment or management recommendations.

·         Disability determination – whether the client is able to work and limitations.

·         Vocational/educational assessment – what kind of work would be a good fit for the client’s abilities.

·          Learning disability assessment – is a learning disability present and  what sort of limitations and accommodations are appropriate.


Preface your history by indicating the source (such as client’s report or family report) and whether you feel it is reliable.

Family History.  Include information about current family, current living situation and family of origin.

Educational and Vocational History.   Level of education completed, high school and college grades, any  history of special education, expulsions and suspensions, occupation and  jobs held, last worked, reason for any dismissals, longest time at the  same job, vocational aspirations if relevant.

Medical and Mental Health History.   The non-psychiatric section should include reports of medical diagnoses  and symptoms, current medications, surgeries and overnight  hospitalizations, and head injuries.  The mental health section should  include psychiatric hospitalizations, outpatient mental health  treatment, substance abuse treatment, history of psychotropic medication  prescriptions, and suicide attempts.  When applicable, indicate that  there was “no reported history of …” to show that you inquired about the  areas above.

Antisocial Behavior/Substance Abuse.   Age, charge, and outcome of any arrests or other legal problems.   Current and past use of alcohol and other recreational drugs, 12-step  group attendance.

Daily Functioning

Client’s  mode of travel (car, bus, family rides) and ability (short trips by  car, uses the bus but needs help to get to a new location, etc.).   Client’s daily living skills, including ability to groom, bathe, dress,  do household chores, and manage money.  Include a general description of  the client’s daily activities including job, recreational, and social  activities.

Review of Records

Include  a brief summary of educational or medical records if available (or  indicate that no records were available when the report was completed).   Diagnoses and test scores are often particularly helpful, as they  provide a baseline for comparison.  Records reviewed should include  report dates, institution name, and the name of the physician or other  professional.

Mental Status and Behavioral Observations

Use  the Mental Status Exam form as a guide for your interview.  This  section can be written or dictated directly from this form.

General appearance:  Particularly note unusual characteristics that may provide diagnostic  information – neglected hygiene, usual dress or tattoos, or physical  characteristics that may affect the person’s social interactions and  abilities.

Attitude & general behavior: Describe the person’s interaction with you and attitude toward being tested and interviewed.

Mood and affect:  Obtain a quote from the client regarding recent mood.  Ask about any  history of depression and anxiety.  Note the range of the client’s  affect.  Ask about sleep and appetite, and inquire further about  depressive or anxious symptoms if a particular disorder if suspected.   See the symptom guide at the bottom of the MSE form.  For instance, if  PTSD were suspected, you would inquire about symptoms such as  nightmares, flashbacks, and startle response.

Stream of mental activity:  Most clients will be described as responding in a coherent and relevant  fashion and speaking at a normal pace with 100% intelligibility.  Note  any deviations from this, including psychotic symptoms, slower or faster  than normal speech, and problems with speech intelligibility.  Note  unusual speech content and inquire into delusional thinking (paranoid,  reference, control, grandiosity) if psychosis is suspected.

Sensorium and orientation:  You will describe most clients as alert and aware of their  surroundings; note any deviations from this.  Orientation includes  awareness of elements such as person, place, time and situation.  Do not  say the client was “oriented times three” as the meaning of this is not  always consistent and clear.  Do report the questions you asked and the  client’s responses.  For instance, “The client reported the current day  of the week as Saturday rather than Monday.”

Memory.   Use simple tests to assess the client’s long- and short-term memory and  report the results of those tests.  A useful test of short-term memory  is to list three objects, have the client repeat them back, and then ask  the client to recall them after five minutes have passed.

Fund of information.   Two or three questions will give a rough index of the client’s general  knowledge.  Easy (mental retardation suspected): “How many legs on a  dog?” or “Where is your nose?”, Average: “How many days in a year?”,  Above average: “What is the boiling temperature of water?”

 Concentration and attention:  Rate the client’s ability to attend to instructions and task  persistence.  Simple concentration tasks are counting backwards from 20  or, for higher functioning clients, counting backwards from 100 by 7.   Note the time required and number of errors.  If ADHD is suspected, use  the symptom guide at the bottom of the MSE form to inquire further about  symptoms.

Perceptual distortions:  Ask about any history of auditory or visual hallucinations and  determine if they were associated with drug use or mood (mania or  depression).  If there were hallucinations, note their frequency, when  they last occurred, and their content.  Note if the client appears to be  responding to hallucinations.

Judgment & insight.   Use a simple, standard question to test judgment, such as “What would  you do if your neighbor’s house were on fire?”  Also, note any history  that would indicate impaired judgment, such as arrests or job  dismissals.  Insight is whether the client has an accurate understanding  of his or her mental health status.  If there are mental health  problems, a client with good insight attributes symptoms to these  problems, and is aware of the need for treatment.  For instance, a man  diagnosed as schizophrenic would demonstrate good insight if he  understands that his auditory hallucinations are caused by his illness  and that psychiatric medication would help.  An alcoholic demonstrates  good insight if she admits her illness and recognizes the need to attend  AA or other treatment.

Test Results

When  discussing the WAIS-IV results, be sure to include a discussion of the  Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index  (VCI) and Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), Working Memory Index (WMI)  and Processing Speed Index. You will need to discuss the client’s  strengths and weaknesses with regard to subtest variability.

Refer  to the WAIS-IV PowerPoint and the sample report as a guide.  Start with  the FSIQ, indicate its percentile range and category (Low Average,  Superior, etc.).  If a change in functioning is suspected due to head  injury or other problem, compare the FSIQ to estimated pre-morbid  functioning.

Compare  the VCI to the PRI, and indicate if they are significantly different.   Briefly interpret this comparison.  If they are not significantly  different you can say, “The VCI and PRI were not significantly different  from each other, reflecting about equal facility with tasks requiring  words as with tasks requiring non-verbal reasoning and performance.”  If  they are significantly different, indicate why you think this is.  Is  it consistent with a suspected diagnosis?  Does it reflect cultural  differences or a physical impairment?

When  discussing the WRAT4 results, be sure to include a discussion of the  WRAT4 scores.  Present the Standard Scores and Percentile ranks for each  subtest of the WRAT4 (Word Reading, Spelling, Sentence Comprehension,  Math Computation). You also want to talk about scores that are out of  the normal range and what that might suggest.  It is helpful to give  examples of the client’s abilities, particularly on Math Computation  (i.e., “able to perform arithmetic operations with whole numbers, but  unable to work with decimals or fractions”).  If a WRAT4 subtest differs  significantly from IQ (at least 20 points lower), a diagnosis of  learning disorder is likely, unless you feel that the difference is  better explained by other factors.

When  discussing the MMPI-2 results, be sure to include a discussion of the  validity scales (you can refer to your text for further guidance). Then  interpret/discuss the clinical scales that are clinically significant,  which are a T-score of 65 or greater. Your text and the powerpoint of  the MMPI-2 (found under the course resources tab) list interpretive  paragraphs of such scores.

When  discussing the MCMI-III results, be sure to include a discussion of the  validity scales, which can be assessed by noting the pattern of scores  of the validity indicators (you can refer to your text for further  guidance). Then interpret/discuss the Personality Disorder Scales that  are clinically significant. Note that a BR score of 75-84 suggests the  syndrome or pattern is present, whereas scores of 85 or above indicate  that it is prominent. Next, interpret/discuss the Clinical Syndrome  Scales. Your text lists interpretive paragraphs of such scores.

Diagnostic Impressions

Provide a complete DSM-5 diagnosis to include the WHODAS 2.0 (p. 747 on the DSM-5).   Your diagnoses should be clearly supported by the material you have  presented to this point.  Your assessment is very likely the most  thorough psychodiagnostic procedure the client will ever undergo, so it  is important that you come to a decision and not expect that another  clinician will be better able to do this.


·          This section should not introduce any new information. It needs to  integrate and present an overall picture of the client, in regards to  the referral question.

·         Statement of overall level of functioning, symptoms present, and problems experienced

·         What is the level of cognitive functioning and capacities


·          The most significant and pressing problem should be listed first and  should be in the context of the referral question.

·          Do not make recommendations about issues that are outside the purview  of your training and competency.  For instance, you would not recommend  an imaging study or a specific medication.  You might recommend referral  to a neurologist or psychiatrist for evaluation and possible treatment.

·          Make recommendations that take practical and financial limitations into  account.  It may be tempting to recommend “further testing” because you  feel unsure of your recommendations.  But keep in mind that testing can  be expensive and time consuming.  Additional testing should only be  recommended if it is for a specific purpose and is necessary for  important decision-making.

As much as possible, your recommendations should take your test  findings into account and should answer questions that could not have  been answered before the assessment was done.  You do not need to  suggest that the client see a physician because she reported occasional  headaches.

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Memory Strategies

Write a 1,000-1,250-word essay that applies memory strategies to your daily life. Include the following:

  1. Explain cognitive mapping and one other memory strategy of your choosing from the course materials.
  2. Explain at least two positive effects of using each memory strategy in daily life.

Using the GCU Library databases, include a minimum of four sources, one of which may be the textbook.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

Week 3 Discussion Response To Classmates

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. One of the references must come from James, R. K., & Gilliland, B. E. (2017). I have put in bold the classmates that you will need to respond to according to the instructions of the instructor. I have also attached my discussion and assessment so you can compare to the classmates you respond to. Please follow the instructions to get full credit for the discussion. I need this completed by 09/14/18 at 7pm.

Discussion: TAF Assessment

Respond to at least two of your colleagues’ posts who scored differently. Consider if you were working with this colleague to come to a consensus and provide a respectful defense of your assessment to advocate for the best possible client care.

My Post on Assessment and Ratings

In scoring the assessment for:

Affective: I would score her with 4 for low impairment. She is aware of her feelings and has learned to control them without lashing out at others. Her emotions extreme emotions usually are crisis focused.

Behaviors:  I would score her with an 8 for marked impairment. She wants to go to school but going to school is where all her anxiety come from. She is unable to attend classes like her fellow classmate without flashbacks of her past trauma. Her trauma can physically and emotionally paralyze her at times. Having normal conversations with men is not possible right now because it’s like she freezes up.

Cognitive:  I would score her with a 4 with low impairment. This one was kind of hard to score for me because with some things I feel that her thinking and decision making is all right. But when it comes to her crisis I feel that it needs help. I supposed I scored her low because despite her trauma, she still pushed her self to attend school and she is concerned about not succeeding in school and her relationships with men not just in her class but in general. So she is thinking about her future concerning this crisis.

In regards to the case study of reference, Amy requires such care needs like deep breathing, meditation, and a healthy diet. I came to know these needs after assessing to determine whether there was an excessive worry, feelings of impending doom and fear. My main reason for assessing to establish whether there was an excessive worry was that I hoped that this will point me to a problem that Amy might be facing. This supports my position in the sense that people that are faced with difficult life problems tend to breathe fast especially when thinking about the problems.

I assessed to determine whether there were feelings of impending doom for the reason that I hoped that this will point me to something that Amy wishes not to happen. This supports my position in the sense that clients that do not want something to happen tend to be disturbed all the time. It is normally difficult for such clients to concentrate on what they are doing. They will hop from one activity to another. In reference to the case study of reference, Amy does not want to fail her exams.

Additionally, I assessed to determine whether there was fear for the reason that people tend to be unsettled when they perceive danger. This supports my position in the sense that an individual that has perceived danger will have an increased in their heartbeat. In the case study of reference, Amy frequently panics thoughts, especially when going to class. The main reason for this is that she perceives the possibility of failing in exams as a danger and her inability to have a relationship with a man. Going to class constantly reminds her that she will at one time sit for exams and not being able to interact with her male classmates hence the thoughts.


Hatala, A. R. (2013). Towards a biopsychosocial–spiritual approach in health psychology: Exploring theoretical orientations and future directions. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 15(4), 256–276. doi:10.1080/19349637.2013.776448

James, R. K., & Gilliland, B. E. (2017). Crisis intervention strategies (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Classmate C.Bar

TAF Assessment: In the Case of Amy

Any distressing or crisis event that produces a critical threat (physical, emotional, or psychological) to oneself or loved ones can trigger psychological trauma. Those exposed to such traumatic events can experience a large range of emotions, behavioral, and cognitive patterns (American Psychiatric Association, 2017). Dependent upon the crisis and person, full recovery from these events will eventually occur. However, there are some instances in which a person may continue to experience posttraumatic psychophysiological symptoms long after the event. Through this persistent occurrence, a person may develop one or more posttraumatic disorders such as Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). One way to assess the degree of impairment of an individual is through the utilization of the Triage Assessment Form. This form allows crisis workers to assess the degree of impairment of a client in three specific domains (affective, behavioral, and cognitive) and formulate specified interventions that target areas of greatest concern (James & Gilliland, 2017). The TAF will be utilized to evaluate Amy’s degree of impairment.

Amy’s Degree of Impairment

Given the information outlined in the case, Amy meets the criteria for PSTD. Individuals suffering from PTSD may experience recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive recollections of the event, negative alterations in cognitions or moods associated with the event, and heightened sensitivity to potential threat (American Psychiatric Association, 2017). Amy has expressed feelings of heightened anxiety and fear around men or walking alone in the parking garage. These feelings stem from Amy’s past sexually assault encounter while in high school. Her anxiety levels have increased due to being asked on a date by a male colleague. According to the TAF, Amy’s overall impairment score falls into the rating of 11-19. Her impairment is contributing to her difficulty functioning on her own (James & Gilliland, 2017).  Guidance and directiveness from the crisis worker are needed. Without proper assistance, Amy’s condition may worsen or escalate. Amy’s degree of affective, behavior, and cognition impairment can be broken down in depth using the TAF assessment.

Affective Domain

Based on the Affective Severity Scale, I would score Amy’s degree of impairment an eight.  Amy has had several episodes of panic or anxiety attacks while on campus. Her reactions escalate to the point of where she expressed feelings of dying. She becomes emotionally volatile when asked questions about her behavior, support system status (closeness to family/religion), alcohol intake, and cut marks. The emotions range from shyness, fear, guilt, anger, and desperation. Her emotions are starting to generalize from crisis to other people and situation as she is having extreme difficulty just talking to men in the class. Amy’s heightened level of anxiety and fear causes her to experience tonic immobility. Through tonic immobility, Amy is fully alert and aware, but unable to talk or move (Wilson, Lonsway, Archambault, & Hooper, 2016). These reactions cease once she is safe in her car. She has displayed feelings of frustration due to her emotions and actions.

Behavior Domain

Based on the Behavior Severity Scale, I would score Amy’s degree of impairment a six. Amy’s behaviors are maladaptive but not immediately destructive. She does drink, but only one or two glasses of wine, one to three times a week. Drinking to “numb out” is a typical (yet maladaptive) coping mechanism for individuals suffering from PTSD (dissociation) (James & Gilliland, 2017). Although it is maladaptive, this pattern is not life-threatening (my perception). Although Amy’s daily living task performance is minimally compromised, her act of cutting herself in alarming. That behavior can pose a potential threat to herself. I do not necessarily think she is experiencing suicidal ideation, but I would take that information seriously. I believe behaviors could be controlled with the aid of interventions or counseling treatment (hence why she is seeking help now).

Cognitive Domain

Based on the Cognitive Severity Scale, I would score Amy’s degree of impairment a three. She can articulate her problem in candid detail. An individual’s cognitive processes normally view the event in terms of transgression, threat, and loss (James & Gilliland, 2017). Amy is well aware that her experience of sexual assault is negatively affecting her emotions and behavior. Although her decisions are becoming a little indecisive, her thought process still under control. She expresses that she feels disconnected from her spiritual beliefs and family. She is aware of the views of her family members (and their acknowledgment of her behavioral change), thus deciding to keep her distance (self-induced lack of support). She has developed some patterns of cognitive distortions, as she views herself as damaged goods. She recognizes that emotional, behavioral, and cognitive change must occur to achieve academically and pursue a relationship.


James, R. K., & Gilliland, B. E. (2017). Crisis intervention strategies (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning

American Psychiatric Association. (2017). Clinical practice guideline for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Retrieved from

Wlison, C., Lonsway, K. A., Archambault, J., & Hopper, J. (2016). Understanding the neurobiology of trauma and implications for interviewing victims. End Violence Against Women International. Retrieved from

Classmate K. Rog

Assessment and Diagnosis

Main Discussion Post

A person in crisis is feeling momentarily out of control, unable to utilize personal resources or those of others around them in an effort to stay in a safe psychological place (James & Gilliland, 2017). It is a crisis worker’s responsibility to help the person re-gain control of their psychological balance (James & Gilliland, 2017).  Assessments are critical when working with someone who is experiencing crisis trauma. Assessments help counselors to determine the severity of the crisis, the client’s current emotional, behavioral, and cognitive states of mind, the alternatives, coping skills, and support systems available to the client, the client’s level of harm to self or others, and the progress of the counselor with de-escalating the situation while helping the client to calm down (James & Gilliland, 2017).

Selected TAF Scale

The triage assessment form scale that I have chosen is the behavioral severity scale. When filling out the triage assessment form, the behavioral scale was a 6/7. Based on Amy’s case study, she instantly becomes distant, stutters, and begins to sweat when having to talk to men in class (Laureate Education, 2018). Although she wants to have a relationship with a man, she cannot seem to overcome her anxiety concerning her sexual assault in high school (Laureate Education, 2018). She even recognizes the fact that she will have trouble making her medical rounds as a nurse if she does not overcome her anxiety with her interactions with men (Laureate Education, 2018). Once the crisis exceeds the client’s ability to meaningfully cope in a purposeful manner, the client is considered immobilized, stuck in the approach, avoidance, or behavior no matter how proactive they appear to be (James & Gilliland, 2017). Amy’s behaviors are unstable but not immediately destructive however there is concern for her safety with her cutting herself as a stress reliever. She is struggling with accomplishing daily tasks such as walking throughout campus and being approached by men (Laureate Education, 2018). She recognizes that her anxiety with being around others, especially men, has to subside for her to accomplish her personal goals. Amy also recognizes that her behavior can be controlled with effort which is why she is seeking professional assistance. She needs to know how she can better handle her anxiety, reconnect with her spiritual beliefs, and effectively interact with men without panicking or thinking the worse. With crisis intervention, the best way to get the client mobile is to promote positive actions that the client can do at once (James & Gilliland, 2017). Once the client becomes more involved with doing something concrete, control is restored, and the climate for forward moving is established (James & Gilliland, 2017).


Crisis is time limited and should be assessed from the client’s subjective viewpoint and the crisis worker’s objective viewpoint (James & Gilliland, 2017). Performing an assessment on the client is imperative to know how to approach the crisis that the client is experiencing. The ultimate end goal is to help the client to get back in a position of control and stability. The length of time that the client has been in crisis will help determine how much time the counselor has in which to safely defuse the situation (James & Gilliland, 2017).


James, R. K., & Gilliland, B. E. (2017). Crisis intervention strategies (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2018). Document: Case Study: Amy [PDF].

Classmate K. Brew

In Amy’s case, as you read on the more and more you realize how big of a crisis she is in.  As we read in Chapter 7 of James and Gilliland (2017), Amy clearly exhibits symptoms to meet criteria for a PTSD diagnosis.

In scoring her Triage Assessment form, I felt some scales were easier than others.  I noted in the observations section that she reported flashbacks and loss of reality contact and also noted her self-injurious behavior.  I think these two issues were clearly identified in the case study.

In scoring the severity scales, I  rated Amy moderate impairment on the first two sections (Feelings are primarily negative and are exaggerated or increasingly diminished and efforts to control emotions are not always successful).  I rated her this way due to her report of having “bad thoughts and panic and worry”.  I also rated her about her emotions not always in control because she does have some coping strategies (although they may not be the healthiest) they have somewhat worked for her.  I rated her emotions of the crisis are generalized to other people and situations.  I rated her this way due to the nature of her crisis and her stating that her crisis began when a male colleague asked her out on a date.  This could very well be a trigger for her repressed trauma and her believing that any other man that she enters a relationship with will sexually assault her again. The last affective question was difficult for me to rate.  I went and rated that Amy’s responses to questions/requests are emotional but composed.  In reading the narrative of the case study, it does not seem that she has any outbursts until the end, but you can see how that response is linear and warranted. It seems Amy is frustrated that this trauma has prevented her from obtaining what she really wants and that is a healthy, appropriate relationship with a man.

In scoring her behavior, I noted that her behaviors are maladaptive but not immediately destructive.  I did this as evidenced by the visual cutting on her arms and the statement, “I cut sometimes to help release my feelings.”  This is obviously maladaptive behavior, but since there is not a desire to end her life I would not identify it as a crisis situation.   I noted that her ability to perform tasks needed for daily functioning is seriously impaired; this was due to her having to go out to her car and feeling that she cannot be around men in completing her medical rounds.  I noted that her behaviors are a minimal threat to self or others. Lastly, I noted that her behavior is becoming unstable and offensive.  This one was difficult for me.  I think this was the one that fit Amy best due to having to run out to her car to avoid negative stimuli.  Behaviors that concern me are the increase in drinking and cutting these two behaviors can definitely lead to being unstable.

Cognitively, I scored Amy low in regards to her decisions and others.  It seems that Amy does not blame others for her trauma but places much of the blame on herself.  I think that she is not a danger or potential danger to others.  The second section, I rated as decision making is frenetic or frozen and not based in reality and shuts down general functioning.  I think in Amy’s case, she has frozen up and she reports that it is similar to the night she was assaulted which causes her general functioning to shut down. Next, I scored thoughts about crisis have become pervasive.  I think this one was pretty evident that as the symptoms of PTSD have increased it has expanded past just thinking about the trauma and into many of Amy’s thought processes. The next rating, I rated as able to carry on reasonable dialog restricted and has problems understanding and acknowledging views of others.  This was another that was muddy for me to work through and process.  Ultimately, I thought that Amy could not carry on a dialog with a male and that would be restricted.  I don’t know if she would necessarily have problems understanding and acknowledging views of others, but I thought this rating fit her best. Lastly, I rated her problem solving is limited.  I rated it this way due to she has some problem solving skills, they problem solving Amy is doing may not be a healthy way to problem solve.

The crisis event is lined out pretty well in the case study.  Amy was sexually assaulted on a senior trip in high school and felt that she could not tell anyone but her sister due to the boys family standing in the community. She does not express any anger or hostility.  She does express anxiety, fear and frustration.  I think that in her behavior she is currently using avoidance and immobility due to her avoiding interacting with men and when she does, she “goes into la la land”. Cognitively, she has a poor self-concept and self-identity (self blame, “damaged goods”).  Amy does have some social support with her family that she sees on the weekends, but outside of that she reports no significant friends or other social support. Amy reports that she is “disconnected and does not actively participate” in her Native American beliefs.

James, R. K., & Gilliland, B. E. (2017).  Crisis Intervention Strategies (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

Required Resources


James, R. K., & Gilliland, B. E. (2017). Crisis intervention strategies (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

  • Chapter 2, “Culturally      Effective Helping in Crisis”
  • Chapter 3, “The Intervention      and Assessment Models”
  • Chapter 7, “Posttraumatic Stress Disorder”

Optional Resources

American Psychiatric Association. (2017). Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Retrieved from 

Hatala, A. R. (2013). Towards a biopsychosocial–spiritual approach in health psychology: Exploring theoretical orientations and future directions. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 15(4), 256–276. doi:10.1080/19349637.2013.776448

National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (n.d.-c). Trauma-informed screening & assessment. Retrieved March 2, 2018, from 

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2014). Trauma-informed care in behavioral health services. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 57. Retrieved from 

Wilson, C., Lonsway, K. A., Archambault, J., & Hopper, J. (2016). Understanding the neurobiology of trauma and implications for interviewing victims. End Violence Against Women International. Retrieved from

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Experimental Psychology

Question #3: Develop and state your own research hypothesis and its corresponding two statistical hypotheses [i.e., the alternative hypothesis (H1) and the null hypothesis (H0)]. Describe the relationships between the two statistical hypotheses; the relationship between the alternative hypothesis and the research hypothesis; and state the two possible results after hypothesis testing. How do Type I and Type II errors relate the alternative and null hypotheses?

Question #4: Ivan adopted a 3 x 4 mixed factorial design to study the effects of A and B on a dependent variable. Factor A (IV #1) is a between-subjects variable. Factor B (IV #2) is a within- subjects (repeated) variable. In order to control for possible order effects, Ivan decided to use complete counterbalancing. Please answer the following questions and justify your answer.

(a) How many groups of participants are required in Ivan’s experiment?
(b) How many conditions need to be counterbalanced?
(c) How many sequences need to be enumerated? Why?
(d) If Ivan wanted to include five participants for each sequence, then, how many participants are

required in his experiment?

Question #5: Educational psychologists were interested in the impact the “Just Say No!” Programand contracts on drunk driving among teens. This program was a pilot program. The investigators identified gender as a participant characteristic highly related to alcohol use among teens that would require a matching strategy and analysis statistically. With the cooperation of school officials, 16- year-old students were matched and randomly assigned with equal numbers of males and females in each group. Group A participated in a “Just Say No!” program, which required a one-hour information session instead of P.E. for six weeks. Students were presented with written factual information, motivational lectures, guidance films, and assertiveness training. Students were also encouraged to sign a personal responsibility contract that stipulated that they would not drink and drive. Group B participated in regular P. E. classes for the six-week experimental period. A two- factor factorial analysis was used to analyze the data. Please answer the following questions and justify your answer.

(a) Identify the experimental design.
(b) What is the independent variable? What is the dependent variable?
(c) Diagram this experimental design.
(d) What are the potential confounds?
(e) How many main effects, interaction effects, simple main effects of A, and simple main effects

of B are there?

Investigating Buddhism Speech Outline

Consider how Buddhists deal with death, sickness, old age, and religious renunciation. If possible, interview a practicing Buddhist individual or a leader of a Buddhist temple, which can be used as an academic resource for this assignment. If you would like to take pictures during your visit to this community or place of worship, be sure to obtain permission.

For this assignment, your role will be as a trainer for Christian colleagues to prepare them for a missionary trip to a Buddhist community. Complete the “Investigating Buddhism  Outline” document for an extemporaneous speech on Buddhism from a  Christian perspective to be delivered to this group.

Utilize the course textbook and a minimum of three academic resources, one of which can be your interview and should include topic materials and external resources. Provide an applicable quote from each resource in your outline.

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4-1 Module Four Lab Worksheet


These labs explore the nature of long-term memory, including how to best harness it (the Encoding Specificity and Levels of Processing labs). However, the very tendencies that make it successful can lead to its fallibility in some situations (False Memory lab).


Complete the following labs:

  • Encoding Specificity
  • Levels of Processing
  • False Memory

Then complete the Module Four Lab Worksheet Template. Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:

  • Record data and include screenshots of results for all module labs.
  • For the Encoding Specificity lab, address lab questions accurately.
  • For the Levels of Processing lab, address lab questions accurately.
  • For the False Memory lab, address lab questions accurately.
  • Address the module question accurately.
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A Newspaper Article Talks About A Research Study

1)          essay must be 300-1000 words in APA style format.


A newspaper article talks about a research study that found a significant positive correlation between taking vitamins and crime rates. The title of the article read, “Vitamins cause crime.”


WriWrite an essay that explains why the title is incorrect. In your essay describe in detail how you would design a double-blind research study to test if vitamins cause crime.


Just very basically consider why the title is incorrect. Don’t get caught up in trying to do research on the topic. After reading Module 1 and Ch 1 (Exploring Psychology, 9th Edition, David G. Myers), use what you know about correlations and experiments to determine why the title is incorrect.

Cite your references and use APA style please.