## Research Process Multiple Choice Questions

Lesson 8

1. The chief aim of sampling is to be able to select

1. simple random samples
2. a sample whose statistics will accurately portray an unknown population parameter
3. a sample whose parameters will accurately portray an unknown population statistic
4. a sample whose statistics will accurately portray a known population parameter
5. a sample whose unknown statistics will accurately portray a know parameter

2. A study population is

1. the theoretical and hypothetical aggregation of all elements as defined for a given survey
2. the theoretically specified aggregation of survey elements
3. that aggregation of elements from which the sample is actually selected
4. that aggregation or set of elements considered for selection in some stage of sampling
5. that aggregation of elements from which information is collected

3. The unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis is called a(n)

1. universe
2. sampling unit
3. statistic
4. sampling frame
5. element

4. In a situation of perfect homogeneity there is little need to be concerned with careful sampling procedures.

1. Ture
2. False

5. The size of the population must be taken into account when deciding on sample size.

1. True
2. False

6. Non probability sampling

1. always produces samples that possess distorted characteristics relative to the population
2. denies the researche the use of statistical theory to estimate the probability of correct inferences
3. should never be used under any circumstances
4. includes stratified sampling
5. requires the use of sampling frames

7. Sample all the students in your research methods class. What kind of sampling design are you using?

1. simple random sampling
2. quota sampling
3. cluster sampling
4. stratified sampling
5. reliance on available subjects

8. Drawing a judgemental sample

1. allows researchers to use their prior knowledge about the topic.
2. Enlists the aid of uninformed respondents
3. Results in a sample that has no researcher bias
4. Ensures a representative sample.
5. Requires the development of a quota matrix

9. If a field researcher wanted to learn a political organization’s pattern of recruitment over time, the researcher might begin by interviewing a fairly recent recruit and ask who introdused that person to the organization. Then the researcher might interview the person named and ask who introduced that person to the political organization. This would be an example of

1. snowball sampling.
2. Systematic sampling
3. Deviant cases sampling
4. Accidental sampling
5. Quota sampling’

10. Professor Hall was planning to do a field study of hitchhikers. Hall wanted to be sure that persons representing all different age, racial, and sex categories were included in the sample of hitchhikers. What kind of sampling scheme would you recommend?

1. deviant cases.
2. Quota sampling
3. Stratified sampling
4. Snowball sampling
5. Cluter sampling

11. A researcher discovers that in a particular city 10% of the households are headed by a single person and that 90% of the families are husband-wife families. The researcher sends out interviewers an tells them to conduct 80 interviews and that 10% of these interviews should be with families that are headed by a single person, and 90% should be with husband-wife families. This researcher is using

1. simple random sampling
2. quota sampling
3. cluster sampling
4. stratified sampling
5. accidental sampling

12. In general, as sample size increases

1. the standard error increases in size
2. the standard error decreases in size
3. the standard error will remain the same regardless of changes in sample size
4. the standard error is a constant
5. the standard error fluctuates in size

13. Sampling error is reduced through an increase in the sample size and an increased homogeneity of the elements being sampled.

1. True
2. False

14. Probability samples are advantageous to the researcher because

1. the method by which they are selected limits consious and unconscious sampling bias
2. the accuracy or representativeness of the sample can be estimated
3. they are perfectly representative of the population from which they are drawn
4. all of these choices indicate the advantages of probability sampling
5. the method by which they are selected limits conscious and unconscious sampling bias and the accuracy or representativenes of the sample can be estimated

15. A summary description of a given variable in a survey sample is called a

1. variable
2. parameter
3. confidence level
4. confidence interval
5. statistic

16. If two samples of the same size are drawn from the same population using simple random sampling, it follows that they will have the same statistics.

1. True
2. False

17. Generally, the more heterogeneous the population, the more beneficial it is to use stratified sampling.

1. True
2. False

18. Stratification represnets a modification to rather than an alternative to simple random sampling and systematic sampling.

1. True
2. False

19. A stratified sample is more likely to be representative on several variables than is a simple random sample.

1. True
2. False

20. You want to select a sample of 250 people from a population of 30,000. To use the table of random numbers you need to work with a

1. 250 digit number
2. 3- digit number
3. 4- digit number
4. 5- digit number
5. 6- digit number

21. A sampling interval of 5 was used to select a sample from a population of 1000. How many elements are to be in the sample?

1. 5
2. 50
3. 100
4. 200
5. 1000

22. Every kth element in a list is chosen for inclusion in the sample in

1. simple random sampling
2. systematic sampling
3. disproportionate sampling
4. cluster sampling
5. stratified sampling

23. Periodicity is particularly important in

1. Simple random sampling
2. Availability sampling
3. Stratified sampling
4. Quota sampling
5. Systematic sampling

24. You are doing research on hospital personnel-orderlies, technicians, nurses, and doctors. You want to be sure you draw a sample that has cases in each of the personnel categories. You want to use probability sampling/ An appropriate strategy would be

1. simple random sampling
2. quota sampling
3. cluster sampling
4. stratified sampling
5. accidental sampling

25. Stratifying a population prior to drawing a sample

1. generally occurs when the variables used to stratify are known to be associated with the dependent variable
2. eliminates the need for simple random sampling
3. is most useful for studying a homogeneous population
4. eliminates the need for probabiity sampling
5. is an alternative systematic sampling

26. A disadvantage of stratified sampling is that it

1. denies you the use of probability theory
2. requires you to have some prior knowledge about the elements in the population prior to drawing the sample
3. usually increases the standard error
4. usually requires samples that are larger in size than those required by simple random sampling
5. none of these choices is a disadvantage of stratified sampling

27. Multistage sampling design tend to have smaller sampling errors than single-stage sampling designs..

1. True
2. False

28. To ensure a sufficient number of cases from strata of varying sizes, researchers use.

1. simple random sampling
2. systematic sampling
3. proportionate sampling
4. disproportionate sampling
5. quota sampling

29. Disproportionate sampling and weighting are used by the researcher

1. to ensure a sufficient number of cases in each of the sample subpopulations
2. to give a proportionate representation to each sample element
3. to procide a representative picture of the total population
4. to handle situations involving the errors and approximation that are often inherent in complex, multistage designs
5. all of these choices are correct

30. Professor Alec O. Howlick is studying the incoming (freshmen) student drinking behavior at Boozemen State University in Boozemen, Kansas. Every incoming freshmen is required to have a university email address. After obtaining a list of all incoming freshmen students email addresses, he numbered every email address from 1 to 4,000. Using a random-number table, he obtained a sample of 200 freshman email addresses. He then emailed students requesting them to take an online survey. He also had two follow-up email reminders. A total of 180 students took the online survey.

(1) What is Howlick’s sampling frame?
a. the drinking behavior of students
b. incoming freshmen telephone numbers
d. Boozemen State University

(2) What is Drunkman’s population?
a. all students living in Boozemen, Kansas
b. all students enrolled in Boozemen State University
c. students who drink alcohol in Boozemen, Kansas
d. all incoming freshmen at Boozemen State University

(3) What type of sampling did Professor Howlick use?
a. stratified random sample
b. simple random sample
c. cluster sample
d. sequential sample

## Use “Initial Interview.edited” document to get background information on the mock client

Use “Initial Interview.edited” document to get background information on the mock client and use it to complete this assignment. Both papers will use the same mock client.

3 pages

Type into “Mental Status Exam Template”. I’ve started the APA document for this paper.

Must be the best!

• InitialInterview.edited.docx
• MentalStatusExamTemplate.docx
• TheMentalStatusExam.docx
• MentalStatusExamReportSample.doc
• MentalStatusExamInstructions.doc

For this assignment, you will complete an analysis of a case study that deals with one of the following stages of lifespan development: adolescence or emerging adulthood.

Select one of the following case studies from your Broderick and Blewitt textbook to complete an analysis of the developmental and contextual issues related to the selected case:

• Dean, page 365.
• Angela, page 436.

Each of the case studies includes a set of questions that can guide your analysis of the pertinent issues for the particular case.

#### Expectations

• Analyze lifespan development theories to determine the most appropriate theory or theories to apply to the case study.
• Apply the appropriate lifespan development theory to support an identified intervention process.
• Describe the potential impact of individual and cultural differences on development for the current age and context described in the case study.
• Write in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for graduate-level composition and expression.

#### Content

The case study analysis should be a maximum of 5 pages in length, including the introduction and conclusion, each of which should be approximately one half-page in length. The body of the paper should not exceed 4 pages.

Provide the following content in your paper:

• An introduction that includes an overview of the paper contents, including a brief summary and background information regarding the case study.
• The body of the case study, including:
• The presenting challenge or challenges and primary issue or issues.
• The appropriate lifespan development theory and research-based alternatives that explain the presenting challenges.
• The potential impact of individual and cultural differences on development for the current age and context described in the case study.
• Evidence-based support from lifespan development theory and current scholarly research to support appropriate interventions.
• A conclusion that summarizes what was introduced in the body of the paper, with respect to the case study context, challenges, and interventions.

#### Requirements

Submit a professional document, in APA style, that includes the following required elements identified with headings and subheadings:

• Title page.
• Introduction (half page).
• Case study analysis (4 pages).
• Conclusion (half page).
• Reference page: Include a minimum of 5 scholarly resources from current peer-reviewed journals as references, in addition to referencing the textbook in which the case study is embedded.
• Font: Times New Roman, 12 point.

#### Resources

For this assignment, you will complete an analysis of a case study that deals with one of the following stages of lifespan development: adolescence or emerging adulthood.

Select one of the following case studies from your Broderick and Blewitt textbook to complete an analysis of the developmental and contextual issues related to the selected case:

• Dean, page 365.
• Angela, page 436.

Each of the case studies includes a set of questions that can guide your analysis of the pertinent issues for the particular case.

• CASESTUDYWeek7.docx

## PSY 200 5-2 Prevention Program: Final Presentation

Create a small prevention program that  could be implemented at a health fair, at a workplace, or in a school.  The goal of this assignment is to articulate the social, biological, and  psychological consequences of addictive behaviors to an at-risk  population and contextualize issues of addiction in historical and  social frameworks.
For this presentation, you will present your complete prevention program.
The presentation should include 7–10 slides (not counting title slide  and references slide) with speaker notes to address the following  topics:

• Population that is at risk
• Addiction and the effects that this addiction has on the individual, family, workplace, and community
• A look at the history and social frameworks of this addiction and the at-risk population
• Where is the best place to implement this program?
• How will you measure success for this prevention program?
• Could you apply this prevention program within your real life and community? If so, will you, and if not, why not?

An effective presentation will include:

• Dynamic formatting of the slides
• Appropriate images, charts, graphs, and so on
• Clean bullets points that do not give too much information per slide
• Use of the speaker notes section to clearly define the bullets of the slide and provide reference to cited material

View this example prevention program.
For additional details, please refer to the Prevention Program Final  Project Guidelines and Rubric document in the Assignment Guidelines and  Rubrics section of the course.

for grading and comments. Thanks, -Overall, you slides were very basic. Add more dynamically to  the presentation by adding pictures to support each area. Be sure to  cover all the important aspects of development and address them through  the literature available on the subjects. Please see specific comments  above.

• psy200_case_study_final_project_guidelines_and_rubric.pdf

• wk_3_pp.docx

## Develop a lesson plan for a preschool using Vygotsky’s ZPD.

Assignment Details

Open Date

Apr   2, 2018 12:05 AM

Yes

Points Possible

100.0

Resubmissions Allowed?

No

Attachments checked for originality?

Yes

Top of Form

Assignment Instructions

Develop a lesson plan for a preschool using Vygotsky’s ZPD. In an evaluative paragraph, describe how these lessons would be explained by Piaget using his view of development. Use of APA format for this assignment is limited to references only.

Supporting Materials

·  308 Assignment 4. Rubric.doc (51 KB)

Bottom of Form

## Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood

Earlier lessons have already provided an introduction to the basics of cognitive development. Cognitive development is the development of thought, mental processes and language. Theories on cognitive development attempt to explain how children develop thought and memory, gain information processing skills, and respond to their environments.

#### TOPICS COVERED WILL INCLUDE:

• Piaget’s view of development
• Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of      proximal development as relates to our understanding of early cognitive      development.
• Environmental influences on early      mental development, including home, child care, and early interventions      for at-risk infants and toddlers.
• Individual and cultural differences      in early language development, including factors that influence these      differences.

### Fundamentals of Cognitive Development

Cognitive development in infants and toddlers advances at a rapid rate as the brain matures and children draw on their natural propensity to be active learners engaging with their environment. Several theories help us understand this developmental trajectory and also illuminate how to support optimal cognitive outcomes.

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· Cognitive development is one of three significant branches or domains of development; the other two are motor/physical and social/emotional development. Construction of thought processes are marked by increasingly advanced abilities in thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving as children move from infancy to early childhood, later childhood and adolescence.

### Factors Which Influence Cognitive Development

· BRAIN MATURATION

· ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULATION

· SOCIAL INTERACTION

Several factors influence cognitive development in infants and children. These include both genetic factors and environmental ones. Brain maturation is essential to cognitive development. Maturation is any permanent change in thought or behaviour that occurs through the biological process of aging without regard to environmental influences. This is a purely biological process; as the child grows, the brain changes.

### Piaget

Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is one of the most recognized in the field. The theory’s central tenet is the child is an active learner who goes through stages where thinking advances as a function of specific underlying mental structures and processes. A group called Neo-Piagetians has expanded the original theory by incorporating an information-processing perspective.

### Schemes

Schemes are an organized way of making sense of experiences. These are a representation in the mind of a set of experiences, objects, perceptions or actions that goes together in some way. Schemes enable infants and children to understand their world and even to predict what will happen next. The scheme is a key way that the brain organizes information.

According to Piaget, cognitive development begins with simple sensorimotor action patterns like dropping an object to see what happens. As children get older, the patterns of learning become significantly more complex. The child becomes more deliberate and creative in his actions, showing that thought is occurring prior to the action. For Piaget, development consistently precedes learning.

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· Adaptation is one of two processes that explain changes in schemes. Schemes are built through interacting directly with the environment. Adaptation is used to achieve cognitive balance, or what Piaget called equilibrium. When the child is not in a state of balance or equilibrium, changes to the schemes must occur to enable the child to continue to develop and learn. Adaptation occurs when the child feels conflict cognitively between what is believed to be true about the world and what is being experienced. For instance, a child’s scheme of “dog” might be a large dog, like a golden retriever. When the child first meets a chihuahua, the scheme of “dog” must change to recognize that both the golden retriever and the chihuahua are “dogs” even though they look very little like one another.

### Organization

· ORGANIZATION, A COGNITIVE PROCESS

· NOT DEPENDENT ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONTACT

Organization is the second cognitive process that impacts changes in schemes due to the mind’s natural propensity to develop and grow. In the process of organization, when new schemes are formed, the child mentally rearranges and links to other schemes to form a ‘system’ to organize knowledge into schemes that are related and interconnected. To rely upon the previous examples, the schemes of “dog” and “cat” could be part of a system of “pets” or of a larger system of “animals”.

### Stages of Cognitive Development

The stages of cognitive development are four stages where all aspects of cognition develop in integrated manner and change in a similar way at the same time. These stages of development are universal and will proceed in the same order for all children, according to Piaget. The first two stages of cognitive development are most relevant to infancy through older toddlerhood.

The sensorimotor stage spans the first two years of life. There are six substages to account for how much cognitive growth occurs during these years. This stage is called the sensorimotor because to advance cognitively, children this age use their bodies, senses and motor skills to explore the world and manipulate things that they encounter within it.

#### FIRST TWO STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

• Sensorimotor
• Preoperational

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· Substage 1 (birth to one month): Reflexive Schemes. This stage consists entirely of newborn reflexes, including rooting, sucking, grasping, and startling. Newborn infants react similarly regardless of the experience encountered.

### Preoperational

The preoperational stage is the second stage in Piaget’s theory, beginning around age two and ending around age seven. Only the very beginning of the stage is relevant for toddlers from ages 24 to 36 months. This stage is called preoperational because thinking does not reliably follow logic or ‘operations’. This lack of logic is visible in a number of different ways in young children.

### Neo-Piagetians

Piaget’s theory does not answer questions about the underlying mental processes like attention and memory related to developing cognitive processes. A movement called Neo-Piagetian looks to information processing capacity to explain what is happening in each stage and how children move through the individual developmental stages. Information processing includes cognitive systems encompassing a combination of mental capacities like working memory and mental concepts. Several aspects of information processing improve as the child matures, including basic capacity, particularly with regard to working memory, the child’s processing speed and executive functioning, which encompasses a range of cognitive operations and strategies. Executive functioning includes the ability to control attention, suppress impulses, coordinate information in working memory and increase flexibility with thought and behavior.

### Vygotsky

· SOCIO-CULTURAL THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

· COMPLEX MENTAL ACTIVITIES ORIGINATE IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

· PRIMARILY APPLIED TO PRESCHOOL AND SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

· SCAFFOLDING

Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist, and a contemporary of Piaget. Vygotsky developed the socio-cultural theory of cognitive development. While Piaget believed that cognitive development was universal, Vygotsky emphasized that children’s cultural context impacts how the child’s cognitive world was structured.

Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory of cognitive development revolves around the central tenant that culture and society impact cognition, particularly as skilled others facilitate the child’s budding thinking skills.

### Importance of Culture

The socio-cultural theory of cognitive development helps shed light on how culture influences learning and mental strategies. Different cultures value varying thought patterns and ideas. In the West, focusing attention on a single activity is most common, and is valued. Children are supported in directing their attention to a single activity. In Indigenous cultures, children are encouraged to do several activities at once or to multi-task. Culture can be more important where children learn not just through lessons but through their own observations of daily life and activities. Children fall into the pattern and expectations of their own culture because they want to be included in the daily life and experiences of their society.

The skilled other can vary depending upon the child’s culture. In societies or subcultures with extended families, or where siblings care for younger children, these individuals may play a larger role in the child’s learning. Even in Western middle class families, toddlers frequently imitate older siblings, particularly in terms of imaginary play.

### Environmental Influences on Early Mental Development

Measurement of mental development in infants and toddlers forms the basis for understanding the influence of physical and psychological aspects of the home and of child-care settings, and subsequently the most effective elements of intervention for those children at-risk for poor cognitive outcomes.

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· Measuring Mental Development: In order to know how environmental conditions impact mental development, researchers and practitioners must know the normal or typical range of proficiency for young children. Several different ways of measuring infant and toddler cognitive functioning are used today to assess the range of proficiency. The best of these use large samples and develop the ‘normal distribution’, broken down by age. The normal distribution is often called the norm group.

### Influence of the Home Environment

Observation in the natural environment, particularly the home, and parental interviews are also common. The HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) checklist is used to gather information about the quality of home life. The HOME checklist has been found to reliably predict language and IQ in toddlerhood and early childhood.

### Influence of Child Care

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· More than 60 percent of mothers of infants and toddlers are employed at least part-time. The majority of these use some amount of child care. A smaller number may rely upon shared parental care or extended family care.

### Child Care Standards

In many cases, parents are not well informed. They may believe that the child care experience for their child is significantly better than it is. Because they think the care is acceptable, even loving parents do not demand improvement in the childcare facility. When parents are selecting a childcare facility, whether a child care center or a home daycare option, the following are signs of a good facility; however, these may not always accurately reflect the care provided.

### Early Intervention

· EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAMS

· CENTER-BASED VERSUS HOME-BASED INTERVENTION

· RESULTS

Early intervention programs apply to children at risk for later poor school achievement. These programs include both those directed at children raised in poverty, as well as those aimed at children with developmental disabilities. Children identified as at-risk on the basis of socioeconomic status can benefit from early intervention; these programs can address gradual declines in IQ and poor school achievement. Intervention programs are designed to counteract the effects of poverty. The earlier, longer, and more intensive, the better the results of early intervention programs. Poverty creates a stressful and chaotic homelife with few resources, undermining learning. The lack of a positive home environment, over time, promotes a cycle of poverty.

### Language Development

Cognitive development and language development are connected in fundamental and essential ways. Language is one of the most extraordinary human accomplishments, with the early childhood period being the time most language skills are acquired. Several theories of language development exist with varying degrees of emphasis on the innate abilities and the influence of the environment. There are a number of theories connected to language development. These can be broadly divided into innate abilities and environmental impact.

#### MAJOR THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

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· The Nativist theory of language development was developed by Noam Chomsky. According to the Nativist theory, language is possible because of innate abilities in the brain. Chomsky believed that grammar was too complex to be taught, so had to be an innate, or inborn, ability. The Nativist theory proposes that all children have a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) in the brain. This LAD is an innate system containing universal grammar or a set of rules common to all languages. The LAD allows children, regardless of their native language, to use these rules once they have mastered a basic range of words.

### Individual Differences in Language Development

· LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT RATE VARIES

· GENETIC INFLUENCES

· PERSONALITY AND TEMPERAMENT

· ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Language development progresses at a different rate from child to child. The range of when children produce their first words is fairly wide, from 8 months of age to 18 months old. The average age is 12 months due to a complex blend of genetic and environmental influences.

### Cultural Differences

There are cultural differences in language styles from one culture to another, and one language to another. Different cultures may have varied referential vocabulary. Referential vocabulary refers to objects in the environment. Referential language is more common in English speaking Western cultures. Mothers in these cultures are likely to label objects than in some other cultures. Expressive vocabulary refers primarily to feelings and needs. Expressive vocabulary is more common in cultures that value relationships and group membership over individual desires.

### Knowledge Check

1

##### Question 1

Which theory supports the existence of a language acquisition device in the brain?

Nativist theories of development

Interactionist theories of development

Socio-cultural cognitive development

Stages of cognitive development

I don’t know

One attempt

### Lesson Overview

In this lesson, you have discussed theories of cognition, or thinking and reasoning skills, including language. Both heredity and environment impact the cognitive ability of growing children. Key theorists in cognitive development include the work of Piaget on developmental stages, Neo-Piagetian theories that integrate information processing into Piaget’s theories, and Vygotsky’s theory of socio-cultural cognitive development.

### Sources:

• Week4assignmentapril202018.docx

## The Following Frequency Distribution Table Lists The Time (In Minutes)

4. The following frequency distribution table lists the time (in minutes) that participants were late for an experimental session. Compute the sample mean, median, and mode for these data.

Time (min)  Frequency

0     3

5     2

6     5

7     1

9     2

______________________________________________________________________________

7. A neuroscientist measures the reaction times (in seconds) during an experimental session in a sample of cocaine-addicted

(n = 8),

(n = 6),

(n = 12).

Mean reaction times in each sample were 16, 14, and 12 seconds, respectively. What is the weighted mean for all three samples? Hint: The overall mean is not 14.0 seconds. (Round your answer to two decimal places.)

____________ sec

______________________________________________________________________________

9. A group of researchers measure the weight of five participants prior to a clinical weight loss intervention. They record the following weights (in pounds): 160, 110, 210, 310, and 260 pounds. The mean is 210 pounds.

Using the original example of five weights, the researchers added a sixth participant to the sample.

(a) If the sixth participant weighed 220 pounds, will the mean increase, decrease, or not change?

The mean will increase.

The mean will decrease.

The mean will not change.

(b) If the sixth participant weighed 210 pounds, will the mean increase, decrease, or not change?

The mean will increase.

The mean will decrease.

The mean will not change.

(c) If the sixth participant weighted 180 pounds, will the mean increase, decrease, or not change?

The mean will increase.

The mean will decrease.

The mean will not change.

______________________________________________________________________________

10. Gilman and colleagues (2008) measured general life satisfaction in 1,338 adolescents from two individualistic nations (Ireland, United States) and two collectivist nations (China, South Korea) using the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS). Mean participant scores on the MSLSS are given in the following table.

Nation  Gender Men  Women

United States   4.39  4.61

Ireland   4.37  4.64

China   4.41  4.56

South Korea   3.92  3.78

(a) Among which group was general life satisfaction lowest on average?

women from South Korea

men from the United States

women from Ireland

men from South Korea

women from the United States

men from China men from Ireland

women from China

(b) Among which group was general life satisfaction highest on average?

women from South Korea

men from Ireland

men from South Korea

men from the United States

women from China

women from Ireland

women from the United States

men from China

______________________________________________________________________________

11. What are the degrees of freedom for sample variance?

n − 2

n + 1

n − 1

n

______________________________________________________________________________

12. Based on the empirical rule, what percentage of data fall within 1 SD, 2 SD, and 3 SD of the mean for data that are distributed normally? (Enter your answers to one decimal place.)

% of all scores lie within 1 SD of the mean

% of all scores lie within 2 SD of the mean

% of all scores lie within 3 SD of the mean

______________________________________________________________________________

13. A social scientist measures the number of minutes (per day) that a small hypothetical population of college students spends online.

Student  Score   Student    Score

A   64   F    84

B   86   G   97

C   27   H  92

D   91   I   78

E   92   J    86

(a) What is the range of data in this population?

____________min

(b) What is the IQR of data in this population?

____________min

(c) What is the SIQR of data in this population?

_____________min

(d) What is the population variance?

(e) What is the population standard deviation? (Round your answer to two decimal places.)

_____________min

______________________________________________________________________________

14. A sociologist records the annual household income (in thousands of dollars) among a sample of families living in a high-crime neighborhood. Locate the lower, median, and upper quartiles for the times listed below. Hint: First arrange the data in numerical order.

lower quartile  _________  thousand dollars

median  _________  thousand dollars

upper quartile __________ thousand dollars

22  36

46  53

38  49

47  31

20  38

______________________________________________________________________________

15. A psychopathologist records the number of criminal offenses among teenage drug users in a nationwide sample of 1,301 participants. To measure the variance of criminal offenses, he computes SS = 46,800 for this sample.

(a) What are the degrees of freedom for variance? ______________________

(b) Compute the variance and standard deviation.

variance ______________

standard deviation ______________

______________________________________________________________________________

16. State whether each of the following will increase, decrease, or have no effect on the population variance.

(a) the sum of squares (SS) increases

This change will increase the population variance.

This change will decrease the population variance.

This change will have no effect on the population variance.

(b) the sample size decreases

This change will increase the population variance.

This change will decrease the population variance.

This change will have no effect on the population variance.

(c) the size of the population increases

This change will increase the population variance.

This change will decrease the population variance.

This change will have no effect on the population variance.

______________________________________________________________________________

17. A researcher measures the time (in seconds) it takes a sample of five participants to complete a memory task. It took four of the participants 1, 2, 2, and 3 seconds. If M = 2, then what must be the fifth time recorded?

______________sec

______________________________________________________________________________

18, An expert reviews a sample of 10 scientific articles (n = 10) and records the following number of errors in each article: 3, 5, 4, 6, 9, 0, 1, 9, 0, and 8. Compute SS, variance, and standard deviation for this sample using the definitional and computational formula. (Round your answers to two decimal places.)

SS   ________________________

variance ________________________

standard deviation _____________________ errors

______________________________________________________________________________

19. A professor records the time (in minutes) that it takes 16 students to complete an exam. Compute the SS, the variance, and the standard deviation assuming the 16 students constitute a population and assuming the 16 students constitute a sample. (Round your answers for variance and standard deviation to two decimal places.)

31  39  42  28

43  51  41  20

36  22  19  42

13  40  24  49

(a) the 16 students constitute a population

SS ______________________

variance ____________________

standard deviation ___________________min

(b) the 16 students constitute a sample

SS ___________________

variance _____________________

standard deviation ___________________min

______________________________________________________________________________

20. To study bonding between mothers and infants, a researcher places each mother and her infant in a playroom and has the mother leave for 10 minutes. The researcher records crying time in the sample of infants during this time that the mother was not present and finds that crying time is normally distributed with M = 8 and SD = 1.1.

Based on the empirical rule, state the range of crying times within 68% of infants cried, 95% of infants cried, and 99.7% of infants cried.

(a) 68% of infants cried

______________ to _____________ min

(b) 95% of infants cried

______________ to ______________ min

(c) 99.7% of infants cried

______________ to ______________ min

• Homework2Revisions.docx

## “Is Psychology A Science?” Responses

I had the “YES” perspective.  Must respond to the 3 perspectives below with a minimum 250 words each.

Perspective #1:  Is Psychology a Science? This is a topic of great debate. For this forum question I have the unnerving task of responding from a “no” perspective. I have to admit it was quite difficult for me to take this stance, however, it was interesting nonetheless. In our text, author Peter Rickman argues against psychology being classified as a science, such as physics and those other natural sciences. I agree with Rickman when he notes that the thought or conversation of science often leads one to think of physical science. As the text states, disciplines involving the study of humanities do not compare to or with that of physical sciences. Disciplines which study human nature, such as psychology, are a separate group which requires almost complete substitutions to the scientific method. One argument I read states that psychology is not falsifiable, meaning that psychologists often only publish those positive findings that support versus unsubstantiate their hypotheses. This brings about the belief that psychologists are more interested in supporting their own beliefs about the human experience rather than understanding and/or accepting the truth about the experiment. Hence, the Stanley Milgram Study on Disobedience. Milgram manipulated the study by tricking the participants into believing they were actually performing shock treatments. This deception ultimately swayed the results of his experiment. According to the text, yes, there are commonalities amongst the physical sciences and human studies, however, human studies is not classified as a science in the same manner as is physics. It all boils down to the study of human beings being profoundly different than the study of physical objects and thus cannot be studied in the same manner or with the same methods. I agree with Rickman when he states, “psychology does not need to be recognized as a science to be an influential discipline in the academic and practical world”. Again, this belief is based on the premise that human beings cannot be studied with the same validity as those physical subject matters of “hard” sciences are studied. (Brandi)

Perspective #2:  Psychology is a science.  As we look through the history of psychology theories and studying of the mind, we know that psychology has not always been a science, or at least not an exact science.  Robert E. Silverman explains in the journal article Is Psychology a science? That throughout the last 140 years that theories have built off of each other or to discredit other theories in psychology (Gantt & Slife, 2016).  Some of the science of psychology of the time back in the 1800s and 1900s was not actually science although many were on the right path with part of their theories.  Freud’s work has been outdated now but he has a point about problems in adults stemming from childhood and he focused on dreams and which interpretation isn’t a science as a whole if we know an individual we can understand how they are feeling by the dreams they are having (Gantt & Slife, 2017).  What I mean by that is that one person may love snakes and another person scared of snakes, so dreams about snakes are not always going to be about anxiety as some interpreters have published.  Silverman goes on to explain when speaking of the history of psychology that scholars agree that the observation process does qualify psychology as a science (Gantt & Slife, 2016).  Let’s also consider that within psychology we have the DSM (rules or laws), observational techniques, and testing which qualifies psychology as a science.   I believe psychology is a science but it is not one size fits all.  Look at how far psychology has come in 140 years.  We have brain imaging today through fMRI that can show the regions of the brain that are activated with different stimulants.  Imaging can also show neuroscientists Depression, ADHD, PTSD, and so on.  I am attaching a video link from youtube to help explain brain imaging and how biomarkers are used before and after 12-week course of CBT or medication (Emory University, 2013).  In the youtube video Depression Biomarker Study: Using Brain Scans to Help Choose Treatment Type they explain that some brains are better with meds and for some meds wont work and how important brain imaging is so that patients that would do better with CBT can get that instead of being put on a drug that isn’t effective for them (2013).  Psychology still has breakthroughs coming though, because we know that genetics are a factor as well as environment.  We know that individual’s perception of reality is different so therefore even with scientific testing, brain imaging, blood draws to understand hormones, we can not say how heaven on earth for one person is hell for another other than their perspective.  How do we get completely inside for a better understanding?  This next video I have attached helps explain EEG, MEG, and other imaging to show activity generated from the brain in structure and function called Modern ways of studying the brain | Organ Systems | MCAT | Khan Academy, and I believe this is strong evidence that psychology is a science and backed by science (2015). (Rachel)

Perspective #3:  The question presented to the class this week is “Is Psychology a science?”. For this debate, I was given the “Yes” side. I would also have to personally agree with this side as well. It is obvious that Psychology is based on science. When researching, scientists ask “Why” and that is the main question that Psychologists as as well. Both of these fields also require, and include, research. If you look at human life as the bigger picture, psychology is involved in every aspect. Science is also involved in every aspect. Psychology is generally said to be the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those which affect the human behavior. It is also called the scientific study of human behavior to study why they behave the way they do. Often a question arises that is psychology a scientific discipline? Many people believe it is not, but others take the other side and believe that it is a science. Scientific disciplines are generally classified under two categories. The first are the physical sciences and the second the social sciences. Psychology is considered to be a social science since its principles are related with social life. It is considered a science or a scientific study since during research the psychologists use scientific values. Psychological research also uses scientific methods like conceptualizing problems, collecting data, analysis of the data and then deriving conclusions from it. Psychologists conduct their research using the scientific method by making observations, gathering data, forming theories, and testing the predictions and then interpreting the results on their basis. To measure and describe behavior, researchers make observations and after observing specific events repeatedly, they form a theory that explains these observations. A theory coherently organizes separate pieces of information. Mostly researchers develop a theory only after having collected a lot of evidence to verify it and only after making sure that their research results can be reproduced by the others. Psychological research so has to meet some criteria for being considered scientific. It has to be replicable, falsifiable, precise and parsimonious. Many people that are involved in the practice of psychology end up working in the health care field. The health care field and science go hand-in-hand. There is just too much evidence that supports that psychology is a science. Psychology includes an array of sub-fields such as behavioral, cognitive, addiction counseling, just to name a few. It is my ultimate belief that all this evidence does support the theory that psychology is a science. (Mitchell)

## Psychology – Lab Assignment

By accepting to do this assignment you ensure that this will be quality, GRADE A work without plagarism otherwise I will open a case requesting full refund.

Ratings wont be provided until work is completed.

Thank you.

-YankeeDoodle.

• lab_2_-_assignment_instructions.pdf
• anticipating_ones_troubles__the_costs_and_benefits_of_negative_expectation…pdf

## Completing A Qualitative Study

Directions:

1. Code the data.

2. Present the results in a table similar to Table 1 in Tables for Assignment document.

3. Create a codebook in a table similar to Table 2 in Tables for Assignment document.

Words or Phrases That Appear Frequently

4. Create a table for each theme similar to Table 3 in Tables for Assignment document.

Inductively Developed Themes

5. Write a report of the results. Include an introduction, discussion of your sample and instruments, data analysis, results, recommendations, and references.

6. See complete directions in “Assignments Document.”

• psy-850-r-mockinterview2-2.docx
• psy-850-r-mockinterview4.docx
• psy-850-r-mockinterview1-2.docx
• psy-850-r-mockinterview3-3.docx
• psy-850-rs-tables_for_assignment_7-2.docx
• psy-850.r.assignmentsdocument-5.docx