250 Word Discussion Post 19932775

 How common was the use of child labor in the early industrial period? What kinds of work did children perform?  What kind of hours did they work? How were they treated?  What was the attitude toward child laborers of the adult authorities questioned by the Sadler Commission?  What do you make of the fact that Parliement was investigating the use of child labor?

Chapter 9 of the human journey book must be used to answer this discussion post. please message me for access to the book,

300 Words Essay And 100 Words Peer Review 19614835

 For this forum, draw on Valenti, Ward, Harding and Rupp & Taylor, and, in no less than 300 words, discuss your learning for the week, then respond to one classmate from this forum in no less than 100 words. For full credit, each response should mention at least two of the week’s texts in detail.  

Philosophy 19512985

Is it morally permissible to believe in God just because it is to yourpractical advantage to believe? Why or why not? Use the material in Vaughn’s book to help you explain how Pascal argues for belief in God. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of other thinkers have identified in his reasoning.

Kim Woods Only 19656241

  Week 2 – Assignment 1 Letter Of Inquiry

Download Worksheet 2.1: Letter of Inquiry Questionnaire. Complete questions 2-9 (2-3 sentences each) by typing your responses directly into the worksheet, and upload the completed worksheet as part of your written assignment.

Use the worksheet 2.1 to write a formal letter of inquiry. Address your cover letter to Mary Smith, PhD, as provided in the Sample Letter of Inquiry on page 25. Be sure to cite properly, according to APA standards, when you pull information from another source.

Note: You will use your responses from this worksheet to craft the final Letter of Inquiry that will be included in your grant proposal/final project due in Week Six (a Sample Letter of Inquiry is included on page 25 of the text).

Epistemology Assignment

For the following questions, answer based on the philosophy of Rene Descartes, David Hume, and Immanuel Kant. You should have one paragraph (at least five sentences per philosopher per question, which means nine paragraphs in total (these are minimums, so you are welcome to go longer if you don’t feel you can respond in a paragraph).

How can we know anything? How can we know that we know? What can we know with certainty?

Phil2306 19627195


Select the title link above or access the Discussion Board through the course menu in order to complete this assignment.

In a paragraph (150 words minimum), please respond to the following questions: Explain John Stuart Mill’s theory of higher and lower pleasures: Are there any problems inherent in the theory? Overall, does Mill’s idea of higher and lower pleasures make sense to you? Why or why not?

Philosophy 19632515

follow this textbook answer should be summarize for this below text 

Study all types of Distributive Justice (6 or 7 total)

Summarize each in one sentence. Produce examples for each. 

Don’t use any other text or article except this one.

There are different theories of how to make the basic distribution.  Among them are: 1. Scope and Role of Distributive Principles 2. Strict Egalitarianism 3. The Difference Principle 4. Equality of Opportunity and Luck Egalitarianism 5. Welfare-Based Principles 6. Desert-Based Principles 7. Libertarian Principles 8. Feminist Principles

There are different theories of how to make the basic distribution.  Among them are: 

Strict Egalitarianism

One of the simplest principles of distributive justice is that of strict, or radical, equality. The principle says that every person should have the same level of material goods and services. The principle is most commonly justified on the grounds that people are morally equal and that equality in material goods and services is the best way to give effect to this moral ideal.

The Difference Principle  

The most widely discussed theory of distributive justice in the past four decades has been that proposed by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice, (Rawls 1971), and Political Liberalism, (Rawls 1993). Rawls proposes the following two principles of justice:

·  1. Each person has an equal claim to a fully adequate scheme of equal basic rights and liberties, which scheme is compatible with the same scheme for all; and in this scheme the equal political liberties, and only those liberties, are to be guaranteed their fair value. 

·  2. Social and economic inequalities are to satisfy two conditions: (a) They are to be attached to positions and offices open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity; and (b), they are to be to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged members of society. (Rawls 1993, pp. 5–6. The principles are numbered as they were in Rawls’ original A Theory of Justice.) 

Equality of Opportunity and Luck Egalitarianism 

Dworkin proposed that people begin with equal resources but be allowed to end up with unequal economic benefits as a result of their own choices. What constitutes a just material distribution is to be determined by the result of a thought experiment designed to model fair distribution. Suppose that everyone is given the same purchasing power and each uses that purchasing power to bid, in a fair auction, for resources best suited to their life plans. They are then permitted to use those resources as they see fit. Although people may end up with different economic benefits, none of them is given less consideration than another in the sense that if they wanted somebody else’s resource bundle they could have bid for it instead.

In Dworkin’s proposal we see his attitudes to ‘ambitions’ and ‘endowments’ which have become a central feature of luck egalitarianism (though under a wide variety of alternative names and further subset-distinctions). In terms of sensitivity to ‘ambitions’, Dworkin and many other luck egalitarians argue that provided people have an ‘equal’ starting point (in Dworkin’s case, resources) they should live with the consequences of their choices. They argue, for instance, that people who choose to work hard to earn more income should not be required to subsidize those choosing more leisure and hence less income. 

Welfare-Based Principles  Welfare-based principles are motivated by the idea that what is of primary moral importance is the level of welfare of people. Advocates of welfare-based principles view the concerns of other theories — material equality, the level of primary goods of the least advantaged, resources, desert-claims, or liberty — as derivative concerns. They are only valuable in so far as they affect welfare, so that all distributive questions should be settled entirely by how the distribution affects welfare. However, there are many ways that welfare can be used in answering these distributive questions, so welfare-theorists need to specify what welfare function they believe should be maximized. The welfare functions proposed vary according to what will count as welfare and the weighting system for that welfare. Economists defending some form of welfarism normally state the explicit functional form, while philosophers often avoid this formality, concentrating on developing their theories in answer to two questions: 1) the question of what has intrinsic value, and 2) the question of what actions or policies would maximize the intrinsic value. Moreover, philosophers tend to restrict themselves to a small subset of the available welfare functions. Although there are a number of advocates of alternative welfare functions (such as ‘equality of well-being’), most philosophical activity has concentrated on a variant known as utilitarianism. This theory can be used to illustrate most of the main characteristics of welfare-based principles.

Desert-Based Principles  The different desert-based principles of distribution differ primarily according to what they identify as the basis for deserving. While Aristotle proposed virtue, or moral character, to be the best desert-basis for economic distribution, contemporary desert theorists have proposed desert-bases that are more practically implemented in complex modern societies. Most contemporary desert theorists have pursued John Locke’s lead in this respect. Locke argued people deserve to have those items produced by their toil and industry, the products (or the value thereof) being a fitting reward for their effort (see Miller 1989). Locke’s underlying idea was to guarantee to individuals the fruits of their own labor and abstinence. Most contemporary proposals for desert-bases fit into one of three broad categories: Contribution: People should be rewarded for their work activity according to the value of their contribution to the social product. (Miller 1976, Miller 1989, Riley 1989) Effort: People should be rewarded according to the effort they expend in their work activity (Sadurski 1985a,b, Milne 1986). Compensation: People should be rewarded according to the costs they incur in their work activity (Dick 1975, Lamont 1997).

Libertarian Principles  The market will be just, not as a means to some pattern, but insofar as the exchanges permitted in the market satisfy the conditions of just acquisition and exchange described by the principles. For libertarians, just outcomes are those arrived at by the separate just actions of individuals; a particular distributive pattern is not required for justice. Robert Nozick has advanced this version of libertarianism (Nozick 1974), and is its best known contemporary advocate. 

Nozick proposes a 3-part “Entitlement Theory”.

If the world were wholly just, the following definition would exhaustively cover the subject of justice in holdings: 

a.  A person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in acquisition is entitled to that holding.

b.  A person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in transfer, from someone else entitled to the holding, is entitled to the holding.

c.  No one is entitled to a holding except by (repeated) applications of (a) and (b).

The complete principle of distributive justice would say simply that a distribution is just if everyone is entitled to the holdings they possess under the distribution (Nozick, p.151).

All this from–On Distributive Justice: 

Sociology Course Reflection


Write a reflection on how this course – the content, assignments, extra credit discussions – have had an impact on you. Below are possible models for what you might argue:

I’ve learned a lot of new facts and concepts, and these have helped me see the world and my life in new light. Elaborate on this.

I knew that these gender related processes and patterns existed even before I took this course, but it is good to learn about the specific facts and figures to back up my prior knowledge and sense. Elaborate on this.

Everything I learned in this course validates or contradicts what I have believed in or experienced all my life. Elaborate on this.

This course has exposed me to information and concepts that make me uncomfortable, and it has prompted me to think in new and different ways than I am used to. Elaborate on this.

The only argument that you cannot make is that you haven’t learned anything from this course and there has been no impact. This would not be productive.

Discussion Involuntary Group Members


Involuntary members have been ordered to attend a group in exchange for some reward. Many times, this is a result of judicial system intervention. Often, these members are not interested in participating and getting to know others. The clinical social worker must understand the potential issues or problems that arise within a group of involuntary members and ways to address these issues. It can be especially difficult to create a sense of empowerment when these members have been mandated to attend.

For this Discussion, pay particular attention to the Schimmel & Jacobs (2011) piece. By Day 3

Post your description of the strategies for working with involuntary group members presented in the Schimmel & Jacobs (2011) article. Describe ways you agree and/or disagree with their strategies. How might you handle the situations presented in the article differently? Explain ways these strategies promote empowerment.

  Required Readings Toseland, R. W., & Rivas, R. F. (2017). An introduction to group work practice (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Chapter 7, “The Group Begins” (pp. 197–230)
Chapter 8, “Assessment” (pp. 230-263) Schimmel, C. J., & Jacobs, E. (2011). When leaders are challenged: Dealing with involuntary members in groups. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 36(2), 144–158.

 When Leaders Are Challenged: Dealing With Involuntary Members in Groups Christine J. Schimmel Ed E. Jacobs West Virginia University Leading groups can be challenging and difficult. Leading groups in which members are involuntary and negative increases the level of difficulty and creates new dynamics in the group leading process. This article proposes specific skills and strategies for dealing with three specific issues related to involuntary members in groups: groups where all members are involuntary; groups where some members are involuntary; and groups with open membership where involuntary members join groups that are already in progress. The emphasis is on leaders using creative and multi-sensory interventions to insure that members are actively engaged in the group process. Keywords: group leading; involuntary; negative members According to both Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) Best Practice Guidelines (2007) and the American Counseling Association’s (ACA) Code of Ethics (2005), ‘‘Group leaders screen prospective group members if appropriate to the type of group being offered,’’ and ‘‘identify group members whose needs and goals are compatible with the goals of the group’’ (p. 4). At times however many counselors find themselves leading very difficult groups that involve involuntary members—members who, as opposed to being simply recommended for a group and can choose whether or not to join a group, are mandated or assigned group membership. These types of groups are difficult primarily because the motivation of the members can be extremely low (Greenberg, 2003). Over the years when Manuscript submitted July 14, 2010; final revision accepted January 8, 2011. Christine J. Schimmel, Ed.D., is an assistant professor, and Ed E. Jacobs, Ph.D., an associate professor in the Department of Counseling, Rehabilitation Counseling, and Counseling Psychology at West Virginia University. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Christine J. Schimmel, Department of Counseling, Rehabilitation Counseling, and Counseling Psychology, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6122, Morgantown, WV 26506. E-mail: [email protected] THE JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN GROUP WORK, Vol. 36 No. 2, June 2011, 144–158 DOI: 10.1080/01933922.2011.562345 # 2011 ASGW 144 conducting group training for agencies, school, and correctional facilities, many participants have expressed that leading involuntary groups is their most difficult challenge. Involuntary groups often include mandated clients or clients who are required to attend treatment by a department of corrections or a judicial system and include DUI (driving under the influence) or long-term in-patient groups such as drug and alcohol treatment centers. Involuntary situations also include short-term in-patient groups where members have had psychotic breaks or tried to commit suicide, adolescent residential treatment centers, and school groups where students are in trouble for their behavior, truancy, or academic issues (DeLucia-Waack, Gerrity, Kalodner, & Riva, 2004; Greenberg, 2003). Anger management groups, groups for batterers, and court mandated parenting groups usually are involuntary as well. In each of these groups, many if not all of the members are involuntary and this creates challenges for any group leader. Although Corey (2008) recommends only accepting involuntary group members for a limited amount of time, involuntary groups often permit open membership where members are continuously joining and leaving the group. This creates additional difficult dynamics with which the group leader must contend. It should be noted that leaders of involuntary groups should not always assume that group members are unmotivated or that they cannot benefit from a group counseling experience (Corey, 2008). When group leaders develop creative, active leadership techniques like those outlined in this article, involuntary groups can offer much needed help and support for their members. (Fomme & Corbin, 2004; Morgan & Flora, 2002). Leaders of involuntary groups need to be dynamic, energetic, and engaging (Corey, 2008). They must be patient, flexible, and thick skinned; that is, they need to be prepared for negative reactions, and not take them personally. According to Corey, Corey, and Corey (2008), leaders of involuntary groups must be perceptive enough to face the challenges that these groups present openly and be open to the idea that involuntary does not mean unmotivated. Additionally, leaders need to be prepared to cut off members when they are being negative or when they get off track. Finally, the leader of a group consisting of involuntary members needs to have numerous techniques for drawing out those members because involuntary members are frequently committed to not participating in protest to being required to be in the group (Jacobs, Masson, Harvill, & Schimmel, 2012; Schimmel, Jacobs, & Adams, 2008). Corey (2008) states, ‘‘One effective way to create a therapeutic climate for participants in involuntary groups is for the leader to explain to members some specific ways in which the group process can be of personal value to them’’ (p. 427). Schimmel and Jacobs/INVOLUNTARY MEMBERS IN GROUPS 145 This article covers three kinds of situations where the leader has to deal with involuntary members: first, all members not wanting to be in the group; next, one or more members not wanting to be in the group; and lastly the open membership group where a new, negative member joins a group already in progress (Schimmel, Jacobs, & Adams, 2008). Finally, while reviewing and processing the following exercises and ideas, group leaders should note that according to counselor ethics (ACA, 2005), group members must provide informed consent to treatment and thus must be made aware of their rights and responsibilities as group members (Erford, 2011). Strategies and Skills for Dealing With Completely Involuntary Groups ASGW’s Best Practice Guidelines (2007) require that group leaders appropriately assess both their knowledge and skills as they relate to their ability to lead groups. According to Greenberg (2003), among the skills necessary to lead involuntary groups are the leader’s willingness to be more active and to be prepared to ‘‘exert greater control’’ of the group (p. 39). In groups where the entire group does not want to be there, the leader must recognize that he or she has two purposes: (1) to try to cover the subject, such as anger, drinking and driving, new parenting skills, performing better in school; and (2) to try to get the members to become voluntary; that is, to get the members to invest in the group experience instead of resisting learning from the experience (Corey, 2008; Kottler, 2001). It is important for the leader to keep in mind that she cannot accomplish much if the members have a negative or bad attitude so the primary purpose of the first and second session is to ‘‘hook’’ them. When a leader attempts to ‘‘hook’’ group members, she is actively working to get them interested in what is being said; engaging them, and convincing them that there is some value to the group and what is being shared. If the leader is successful, a group that began with involuntary members, then transforms into one in which members enjoy and look forward to participating. The examples that follow require a willingness to lead and be active. Do the Unexpected One of the best things that a leader can do with an involuntary group is to do something out of the ordinary. For example, in a mandatory group for teenagers who were caught using drugs at school, one leader started with: Leader: I know you don’t want to be here so we’re going to use the first 10 minutes to bitch. (The leader used the term ‘‘bitch’’ 146 THE JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN GROUP WORK / June 2011 intentionally, believing that this may help with rapport since it was obvious that none of these teenagers were at all interested in being in the group. We do not ordinarily suggest the use of bad language but in this case her use of certain words helped her build some rapport with these involuntary members.) I want you to get all your trash talking done with and put it in this trash can (puts a large trash can in the center of the group). You have 10 minutes and then we’re going to get down to business. All of you can talk at once and say all the negative things you are feeling about having to be here. After 10 minutes, she dramatically put a lid on the trash can, removed the can, and firmly said, Leader: Let’s begin. I’m going to tell you how this group can be valuable. I want you to fill out this short sentence-completion form. Starting with negative energy is generally a mistake. According to Erford (2011), it is usually best to limit the amount of time devoted to complaints. The uniqueness of this technique did much to reduce the negative feelings about being in the group. In this example the leader puts herself in control by using the garbage can and soliciting the negative thoughts which she brought to an immediate end by putting a lid on the garbage can and then turning to the positive ways the group could be helpful. She showed that she was in charge. When the leader knows a negative energy is present, she can dissipate that energy by using a technique like the one described in the example. In doing this, she wants to insure that she introduces the exercise in a way that does not set the tone for the group, but rather as an opening technique where she demonstrates a strong leadership approach. This is a way to dissipate some of the negative energy. This technique works only if the leader is a person who presents a very confident, take-charge leadership style. Inexperienced, less confident leaders may be inviting disaster by using such a technique because they would not be able to reverse the negative flow. An additional unexpected strategy is to do something dramatic such as have someone dressed like a policeman come into the room right before the beginning of the group and fake an arrest or some other dramatic scene. This can be a good technique if the unique strategy is related to the purpose and stimulates members to talk about the desired topic (i.e., avoiding arrest, staying out trouble with the law, avoiding another DUI). Using bold, vivid movie or television scenes is another way to start an involuntary group. If the clip is a good one, members tend to forget Schimmel and Jacobs/INVOLUNTARY MEMBERS IN GROUPS 147 that they have all these negative feelings about being in the group. The key is to find something that is engaging and relevant to the purpose of the group. Use Written Exercises One of the best ways to engage involuntary members is to give them a brief writing task, such as to make a list or to complete some incomplete sentences. Members will usually make a list or finish some sentences if the list or sentences are interesting. When members are asked to read what they wrote, most will pay attention because they are curious to hear what others said, and if other members had similar answers to their answers. Oftentimes, negative members are reluctant to share when asked to simply answer questions out loud; however, they may feel more comfortable reading from what they wrote and will therefore feel more comfortable sharing. Listed below are some potential sentences for use in involuntary groups: 1. In order to stay out of trouble, I need to __________________. 2. One thing I would like to know about others in this group is ______________. 3. Given that I have to be here, one thing I would like to hear about is ______. 4. When I get angry, I ________. 5. When I drink, I ______________. 6. The toughest part of being a parent is _________________. 7. One reason I want to drop out of school is _______________. 8. One thing I worry about the leader of this group doing is __________. 9. One thing I like about myself is ___________________. 10. One thing I don’t like about myself is ____________________. 11. One thing I would like to change is _______________________. It should be noted that these are examples of sentences that could be used in various involuntary groups. Leaders should only use two or three of these in any one session and the sentence stems chosen should be related to either the purpose of the group or the members’ feelings about the group. Using lists also can be effective. For example, having members list five things that they believe make them angry or list three things they like and three things they do not like about school can assist in engaging the involuntary member. With any writing activity, the leader closely monitors the members to see that they are writing or completing the sentences. Additionally, it should be noted that leaders take into account that not all members may be able to read and write. Leaders can avoid the pitfalls of this by doing two things: first, read all of the 148 THE JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN GROUP WORK / June 2011 sentences out loud so that all members hear what the sentences are and secondly, assure the members that you are not going to collect their written answers. Use Creative Props One of the best ways to engage involuntary members is to use a creative prop (Beaulieu, 2006; Gladding, 2005; Jacobs, 1992; Vernon, 2010). Creative ‘‘prop’’ refers to any multi-sensory tool, typically some easy to find or easy to make visual aide. Highlighted below are some creative props that work well with involuntary members and, when used appropriately, make the group more interesting and engaging, therefore diffusing the negativity and hostility. Fuses. For involuntary groups where anger management is the focus, the leader can introduce to the members the idea of lengthening their ‘‘anger’’ fuse so that it takes more to get angry. To do this, the leader would show the group some string of different lengths and ask the members to think of the string as their anger fuse (most would have a short fuse). The leader would lay on the floor many different lengths of thick string (e.g., 1 2 inch to 12 inches). The leader then asks the members to pick the string that represents the length of their anger fuse and ask the members to comment regarding their anger fuse. The simple act of having members identify how long their fuse is usually gets them talking about the role anger plays in their lives. The leader would then pick a very long fuse and talk about the purpose of the group being to help the members to lengthen their fuse. Using the members’ comments regarding anger, the leader could teach cognitive behavioral techniques for lengthening one’s fuse. The leader would be listening for the ‘‘shoulds’’ that the members have that lead to a short fuse. Usually, most members will relate to having a short fuse and the need to lengthen their fuse. (Beaulieu, 2006; Jacobs, 1992; Jacobs et al., 2012). Beer Bottle For involuntary groups where alcohol use is the primary topic, using a large (2 foot tall plastic bottle) beer bottle gets members’ attention and the leader can show many ways where alcohol is a big problem. Members can relate the size of the bottle to the size of their drinking problem. One way to get members attention regarding their denial that their drinking is a problem is the leader can place the large Schimmel and Jacobs/INVOLUNTARY MEMBERS IN GROUPS 149 bottle in the center of the group along side a small empty beer bottle to show the relevant size of the members’ drinking problems. Members can see the difference and some usually begin to comment. If the members do not comment, the leader can use the difference in size of the two bottles to comment on how many with drinking problems think it is small when their love ones, employers, and friends see it as big. The large beer bottle helps with the discussion of denial which is such an important concept with those who have serious drinking problems. The larger beer bottle can be used in groups to show the damage to relationships that excessive drinking can cause. The leader can get two members to stand and have one member represent the spouse or family member of the other and then place the large bottle between them and then ask them to hug. It quickly becomes obvious that the bottle is in the way and they cannot get close due to the bottle. This visual image generates much discussion about the effects that drinking has on relationships not only from the two members with the bottle between them but from many of the other members. (Jacobs et al., 2012; Jacobs & Smith, 1997). Rubber Band Trust is a common issue in groups where the members don’t want to be there. Using a large rubber band (a rubber band that has the potential to be stretched to over a foot in length) to get at the trust issues can be effective (Beaulieu, 2006; Jacobs, 1992; Jacobs et al., 2012). The leader asks one member to hold the opposite end of a rubber band and then pulls on it to lengthen it. Then the leader says: Leader: In a minute, I am going to let go, but I am not going to hurt you. (The leader then counts to three and gently releases the rubber band by slowly closing the distance between the member and himself) Did I do what I said I was going to do? Member (nodding): Yes, but I thought you were going to pop me with that! Leader: Right. I think all of you thought I was going to pop her with the rubber band. I know other folks have popped you in your lives, but I am not going to pop you. I will do what I say I am going to do. Leaders should be prepared to be popped by the member. If this occurs, the leader can simply say ‘‘That is OK. I am trained to take your pops, but I will never pop you. That is not my job; my job is to be helpful to you and all the group members.’’ 150 THE JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN GROUP WORK / June 2011 Use Rounds Rounds are exercises where you ask each member to say something such as a word or phrase or a number on a 1–10 scale (Jacobs et al., 2012). The value of rounds with involuntary members is that most members are willing to offer a word or a number even though they are not willing to say much more than that. Most members will say something, and from this, the leader gains a better sense as to whether certain members will begin to become more engaged in sharing. For example, when conducting a group for students who are at risk of failing, the leader may say something like: Leader: In a word or phrase, when you think of school, what comes to mind? In a DUI group, the leader may say something like: Leader: I want each of you to say how you see yourself in regards to alcohol by saying one of the following: ‘‘I have a serious problem with alcohol,’’ ‘‘I may have a problem,’’ or ‘‘I don’t have a problem.’’ Another round that could be used in a DUI group is: Leader: On a scale from 1–10, where 10 is ‘‘my drinking causes me lots of problems’’ and 1 is ‘‘my drinking causes me no problems at all,’’ what number would you give yourself? Use Movement Exercises Since one major problem with involuntary members is getting them engaged, the use of movement exercises can be very helpful in accomplishing this task. Movement exercises refer to any activity where the members have to be up, out of their seats moving around (Jacobs et al., 2012). It could mean moving along a continuum such as: not angry at all——————————very angry math is easy————————————math is very hard. The leader would have members stand in the center of the room lined up behind each other and then on the count of three, members move either right or left depending on how they felt about the issue being presented. Another movement activity involves having the members stand and show how they feel about the group Schimmel and Jacobs/INVOLUNTARY MEMBERS IN GROUPS 151 using their arms and positioning themselves like a sculpture. For example: Leader: I want you all to stand in a circle and in a minute I’m going to ask you to sculpt how you feel about being in the group. That is if you hate the group and feel closed off, you could turn away from the circle with your arms folded (leader demonstrates this); if you have some interest, you may put one foot forward and stand sort of open; if you don’t like it, you can put your hands over your ears. Sculpt how you feel. Do you understand what I mean? (All nod) Okay, on the count of three, sculpt how you feel. Another movement exercise that could be conducted in a second or third session of an involuntary group involves having members face an imaginary line that represents their getting something meaningful out of participating in the group. Then, the leader asks members to physically move towards the line to represent how far they feel they are from that goal. For example: Leader: I want you all to stand and face this imaginary line (leader pretends to draw a line in the middle of the room or actually draws a line on the floor–the members are all lined up, side-by-side, about 10–15 feet from the line). This line represents you reaching the goal of getting something meaningful out of this group. On three, I want each of you to move either towards or away from the goal showing me where you think you are in terms of getting something good out of this group. Again, the line represents ‘‘getting something meaningful out of the group.’’ One, two, three. (Some members move and some stay stationary) Now let’s talk about how all of us can make some movement towards that line. These are just three examples of movement exercises. Many more movement exercises exist and leaders should feel encouraged to create their own. Movement activities have a better chance of engaging involuntary members than almost any other kind of exercise (Jacobs et al., 2012). Strategies and Skills for Dealing With a Few Involuntary Members There are many settings where members are required to attend group counseling. Settings such as treatment centers and crisis care centers often have some group members who are involuntary. When leading groups with these difficult dynamics, it is important for the leader to pay close attention to each person’s level of interest or investment in the group process. If the leader fails to recognize the varying levels of involvement, he may focus much of the group’s energy 152 THE JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN GROUP WORK / June 2011 on trying to get that one or two members invested. Leaders often make the mistake of focusing on the negative, involuntary members when these members are not ready or wanting to share. This causes the involuntary members to have more hostility about having to be in the group (Erford, 2011). A skilled leader focuses on those members wanting to gain from the experience, while at the same time assessing if the involuntary members seem ready to engage in the group. Assess Member Readiness Listed below are three means of assessing whether or not members are ready to work. Pay attention to speech pattern, voice, and body language. Skilled leaders can usually read a member’s attitude towards the group by reading their non-verbal cues as well as by listening to their speech pattern and their voice. Negative members tend to look all around the room, roll their eyes, sit with arms crossed and generally look disinterested. If negative members say anything at all, their voice and speech is usually abrupt, argumentative, or even hostile. If the leader does not pay attention to members for non-verbal gestures and voice and speech patterns, she may call on or focus on members who have negative energy which in turn negatively affects the group process. By paying careful attention to speech patterns and body language, the leader can focus on those who seem to have positive energy for the group. Use dyads. Another technique that can be used to assess members level of willingness to participate is for the leader to put themselves into dyads with the negative member to talk about how the member is feeling about the group (this is while other members are paired together to discuss some relevant group topic). The leader asks the negative member(s) how they are feeling about the group and how they would like to participate if at all. By using dyads, the leader can talk with, encourage, and possibly confront the member(s) somewhat privately. This way the group does not experience the hostile and negative reactions that can pollute the otherwise positive energy. Use inner circle, outer circle. As the group develops and the leader feels that most of the members are interested in talking, one technique that can be utilized is to have an inner circle and an outer circle. Having hostile, involuntary members sit outside the group may be of benefit to both them and the larger group. The outside members are permitted to sit, read, or draw; however, at any time they can request to be part of the group if it is agreed that their participation will not be negative. The leader can say something like ‘‘For those of you Schimmel and Jacobs/INVOLUNTARY MEMBERS IN GROUPS 153 wanting to work and get something out of group today, scoot your chairs to the middle and those of you who don’t can sit quietly out of the circle.’’ This serves a couple of purposes; mainly, members who want to gain from the group have the opportunity to do so, and resistant members don’t have a chance to disrupt the flow of the group. Many times when this technique is employed, members on the outside circle pay attention and may even ask to speak and join the group. Even if they don’t join, resistant members usually pay attention and possibly gain something of value. Invite Positive Members to Question Negative Members The leader can conduct an exercise that invites positive members to ask questions of the negative members to assess if they are willing to work. This strategy removes the leader from putting resistant members on the spot. These questions may include something like: Leader: Is there anything you (to positive members) would like to ask Josie (negative member) about her ________________________ (drinking, relationship, job, etc)? Leader: (to all positive members) I want to get some of you to ask Jeremy what we could do to get him more involved in the group. Shelly (a positive member), let me start with you. Conduct Feedback Exercises There are a number of feedback exercises that may get the involuntary member(s) interested or more involved. One simple exercise involves having members answer questions like ‘‘Who do you trust most in the group?’’ and ‘‘Who do you trust least?’’ or ‘‘Who do you feel most comfortable with?’’ and ‘‘Who do you feel least comfortable with?’’ By having members do this, the involuntary member is involved unless she leaves the room. She may not say anything but she will be listening to whether her name is called. The leader can then ask her how she feels about what was said. Another feedback activity that may work is to have everyone write a word or a phrase on 3 5 cards for each member of the group and then give each member their feedback cards to read. Most of the time, the resistant member will read them and sometimes may react. Caution should be used with this technique in that the leader should only do this when she thinks there may be a chance that the member will open up or will react in a way that may start the process of him becoming involved in the group. 154 THE JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN GROUP WORK / June 2011 In the example below, the leader attempts to give the negative member(s) feedback by eliciting comments from the members who are more engaged: Leader: (Knowing that four or five of the eight members are now actively engaging in the group and ready to work) Those of you who are now more interested in getting something good from our group (leader gestures towards the four or five members who are engaged) do this for me. Talk to me about how you are feeling about members who are not engaging or participating in our group. What is your wish for them? How does their sitting quietly and being negative affect you? What would you like for them to do? Finally, it should be noted that it is important to understand that not all people benefit from groups, especially those who are mandated to attend. Skilled leaders who make sure their groups are engaging and relevant can frequently get members interested in a mandatory group, but there will be times when a mandated member refuses to buy into the group process and can potentially ruin the experience for the other members. Ideally the leader has the option to ask negative members to leave the group, or screen them out of the group, but, many times, agency policy dictates that these members must attend the group. Leaders who do have authority to screen out members should do this privately, not during a group session, and with compassion and empathy towards the member. Working With Groups Where Involuntary Members Are Joining an Existing Group Many of the ideas presented in this article can be used in situations where the group is an open group and new, involuntary members are joining an established, ongoing group. The key to working with groups where open membership is the policy and new members are frequently involuntary and negative is to not cater the group to the new, negative member. Skilled leaders do not focus the energy of the group, especially a group where the energy is good, on the new, negative member. Leaders also should avoid letting the new, negative member take over, sabotaging the group experience for all members. Leaders are encouraged to meet with new members prior to or following their first group session to gage their level of commitment and attempt to establish a positive attitude toward the group (Day, 2007). With regards to introducing a new member into the group, it is recommended that the leader get the existing members to briefly introduce themselves, say something they are getting from the group, Schimmel and Jacobs/INVOLUNTARY MEMBERS IN GROUPS 155 and let the new member say a little about herself. The leader should lead the group with a focus on the existing members and not focus the energy on the new, negative member. A common mistake that many leaders make is to ‘‘give the floor’’ to the new member without assessing whether or not the member is going to be positive. Common Mistakes Leaders faced with involuntary members frequently make a number of mistakes in the beginning that make leading the group much more difficult than it should be. Screening group members and planning group sessions are two areas that group leaders mistakenly neglect prior to leading involuntary groups (ASGW, 2007; Corey, 2008; Jacobs et al., 2012). Listed below are additional common mistakes that leaders make with involuntary groups. Allow negative tone to be established. Many leaders make the mistake of letting members express their negative feelings in the beginning in such a way that a negative tone is set (Jacobs et al., 2012). Earlier in this article we gave the example of the leader starting with letting the members express their negativity by putting a garbage can in the center of the group. In that example, although members started negative, the leader had a definite plan for ending the negativity by putting a lid on the garbage can. In other words, she was in charge the whole time. What we are referring to here is when one member

Assignment Hegels Understanding Of History

 Georg Hegel had an encyclopedic mind.  He seems to have remembered everything. He especially remembers historical conflicts and the tragedies they have wrought on peoples throughout history. That got him wondering about why and could those events teach us something and lead to better lives for people in the future.  He used a dialectic of thought to try to come to some understanding of what history means. We don’t usually think of history in this way, but to his credit Hegel was right to make some sense out of the tragedies that befall us, especially due to war. He calls this the “slaughter bench” of history, and he wondered if past events can teach us how to be better.  

 Napoleon Bonaparte Biography.  Cloud Biography,  YouTube.  12 April 2012. https://youtu.be/BGxFNtCPnB0 


Hegel mentions that certain individuals move history forward. Napoleon is one of those  world-historical individuals.  Hegel watched in fascination and then disappointment as the tragedy of the French Revolution unfolded and then as the country was brought to order under Napoleon. Unfortunately, Napoleon over reached .

There is so much to Hegel’s philosophy that it would take years to master even some small pieces of it, but our text does a good job of explaining his ideas of History and freedom and the place world-historical individuals have to make our world either better or worse.  So in the reading this week in the section that deals with his view of history and freedom. give a detailed explanation of how the World Spirit works through important historical people to advance the course of history and of our lives.

Must be a minimum of 1 1/2 pages with standard 1-inch margins in Times New Roman or Garamond font. 
Must be double-spaced. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought. Must include in-text citations and references in MLA style.  Name, course, and assignment top left. Include a Title.