Just Answer 1 Question

choose 1 question and answer it. (200 words)

use the pdf file chapter 1 to answer

  

1. What is encompassed in the question “why computer ethics?” In other words, what more specific questions are included in the broad question?

     – What is computer ethics? What does it mean?

     – Why do we have to learn ethics?

     – Is computer ethics important or not?

     – Is it connected to our course?

     – Is computer ethics helpful? 

2. Give a concise summary of Moor’s standard account of computer ethics.

     – Moor’s standard account of computer ethics is saying that when IT comes up a new possibilities for people’s action that is because Ethical issues arises around IT.

3. What is a policy vacuum? Give an example, and explain it using the standard account.

     – Policy vacuum means “no policy”. For example, A Benildean girl went to her school wearing slippers. At that time, the school accepts slippers then suddenly made a school policy of dress code. She wore slippers because there were no rules of not wearing slippers. She can be excused if her feet/s were injured.

     Using it in the standard account, the policy vacuum are filled when there are questions or conceptual muddle that needs to be solved or answered. 

4. What is a conceptual muddle, and how do they get in the way of filling policy vacuums? Illustrate with an example.

     By the word itself, muddle means mix-up, confusing, or jumble. Conceptual muddle gets in the way of filling policy vacuums because conceptual muddles are the questions that to be answered and be solved so they are like making the created policy change. For example, A man asked the IT department if he could access his email account to read his personal emails. The IT says “no” but with reconsiderations and depending on his request he can access his email account with a desired time and if it is business related. 

5. What is wrong with the standard account of computer ethics? Identify at least two criticisms, and explain.

     The problem with the standard account of computer ethics is the “newness”. In the book, “newness” may skew the kind of analysis that is done. 

6. What are the two tenets of the view referred to as “technological determinism”? What is the STS critique of each tenet?

     – “technology develops in isolation and according to its own logic – should be rejected outright” 

          = It does not follow a predetermined or “natural” order of development.

     – “technologies are adopted by societies or particular social groups, the adoption brings about – determines – social arrangements and patterns of social behavior”

          = When we say that technology determines society, we are forgetting that the technology has been socially shaped; social factors and forces have influenced the development and design of the technology. 

7. What is wrong with thinking of technology as merely material objects?

     In the statement “thinking of technology as merely material objects”, it sounds normal but it doesn’t look at the main idea why technologies are invented. 

     In the chapter 1 of Computer Ethics, about “Sociotechnical”, one of the lessons of STS, is not to think of technology as material objects. As sited in this chapter, that “Facebook users think of the site not just as a material object or piece of software, but as a “social” networking site”. 

8. What is a sociotechnical system?

     For me, sociotechnical system is a system that people should might know. It helps in our decision making and critical thinking. It helps us stretch our mind, ask questions that obviously want decent answers.    

     Written in the book of Computer Ethics, “sociotechnical systems perspective provides a richer account of situations in which ethical decisions are made, one that may help in articulating moral concerns as well as revealing additional avenues for addressing ethical questions and issues”.

9. Choose a familiar technology and describe its values?

     – Internet

          = helps users to reconnect with other people

          = to gather informations

          = to send files from other people

10. What is the difference between micro-level ethical issues and macro-level ethical issues?

         Micro-level ethical issues are for the individuals’choices and their behavior. 

         Macro-level ethical issues are for big groups that everyone can be affected.

11. Why is the study of ethics and technology needed? Why is the study of ethics, and IT in particular, needed?

     The study of ethics and technology is needed because:

          = Ethics -> In ethics, ethics gives us to explore our mind or to widen our mind, ask questions to the unknown, ask questions to the unjust, and etc.  It helps us to think more of cases that are somehow wrong and right. 

          = Technology -> We need technology. As we our world continues to grow on technologies, we began to be attached to the technologies we created. We are so attached that people can’t live without it. That is why Ethics is needed because Ethics is like the one stopping the evil deeds of an evil person using technology. 

     The study of ethics and IT in particular is needed because these IT people are mostly creating ethics. Reading some of the recent cases can actually relate some of your problems that can be solved under some of the circumstances.

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