Reality is a mystery that has engaged humanity for many years and has been expressed in varying and sometimes antagonistic approaches by individuals using specific philosophies and believes. For instance, in most religious oriented explanations of reality, there exists a deity of a higher order and beyond the understanding of human beings. Modern sentiments about reality reveal a definition based on binaries of exclusion hence discrimination. On the other hand, post modernists immensely criticize the binary method of establishing meaning and propose a neutral approach to eliminate the shortcomings of modern reasoning(Wilkins 36). Notably, all of the three perspectives described above involve reasoning but lead to distinct conclusions about definitions. Therefore, it is clear that reasoning forms an important element of deriving meaning but its ability to lead to,or the manner it impacts valid common ideologies is unclear hencehighly controversial.
The religious concept of reality and development of common meaning is derived from psychic sources and involves little or no human thoughts. For instance, the Christianity view of morality, as well as definition is based on the Bible, which most of the Christians believes that it never involved human reasoning efforts to develop but represents the code of conduct that God commands humanity to adhere to. In most cases, human reasoning is involved in the interpretation of the codes of conduct from the deities. The approach of developing meaning and the code of conduct is heavily criticized by the modern views for its inability to create a common understanding that can articulate a civil government and promote order. Modernists argue that different religious ideologies, such as Islamic or Christian, adhere to varying code of conducts from their unique deities hence complicate the process of identifying a common ground that can enhance civil rule(Smith 2). Antagonists of the religion based morality or definition indicate that they are inadequate or inappropriate because they lead discrimination hence division. For instance, some of the meanings adopted from the religious perspectives define the chosen people by excluding the rest as the enemies. Thus, an improved level of reasoning is required to establish the best way to develop meaning, which is less discriminating hence can lead to common thinking and enhance civil rule. Reality
Common understanding or ideologies are important to the survival of humanity because they provide essential definition hence promotes the prevalence of order in the human society. Adam Smith quotes the perspective of Mister Hobbes, who emphatically criticizes the religious orientation of definition, which includes a supernatural being and a predetermined code of conduct to allege that modern reasoning is highly important to the existence of humanity because it enhances adherence to the civil judge (2). Hobbes, a modernists, argues that through reasoning, humanity can identify a proper understanding that can lead to valid common definitions and development of laws that can guide the behavior of human beings. In addition, modern views indicate that reasoning enhances the formation of the general maxims of morality through induction and experience (Smith 8). Furthermore, modernists such as Hobbes reference the increased prevalence of war before the inception of civil style of governance. The modernist approach concludes in common binaries of inclusion and exclusion, which offer meaningful definitions that are commonly understood by all people hence provide the basis of developing a code of conduct. However, the technique of defining by referencing the undefined is heavily criticized because it leads to unreasonable privileges and punishment that come along with its use. For instance, the definition of man is achieved by excluding everything else that is perceived unmanly. Specifically, the definition of man his roles excludes the woman, as well as her duties hence makes the former more privileged than the latter. Thus, the modernist strategy of deriving meaning, setting rules and expressing reality results to distorted and biased understandings hence requires intense interrogation through reasoning.
Postmodern philosophies immensely refute the modernist approach to defining and setting common rules, by identifying its shortcomings such as discrimination that result from the binary of exclusion. Jacques Derrida, a French postmodernist, was one of the most vocal and fervent critics of the modern perspective of definition and proposed and deconstruction method of improving human understanding. Derrida argues that language possess a weakness in naming and communicating meaning because it favors or names the common and discriminatesthe unique, unrepeated and the private by denying them names(Wilkins 35). For instances, postmodern sentiments indicate that gender is discriminatory because it provides definite names for the man and the woman but fails to adequately recognize other sets of gender, such as bisexual, gays and lesbians. Therefore, postmodern reasoning propose a deconstructive method of deriving indiscriminative meaning by overcoming the binary exclusion and inclusion outcomes. Notably, language is means of expressing meaning but not a technique of developing it. In this regard, weaknesses revealed by language indicate a deficiency in the mechanism of definition. Thus, postmodernist criticism of the modern approach is based on a misplaced perspective and may lead to ambiguous conclusions. Reality
Clearly, reasoning is regarded as a means of improving understanding hence promoting efforts to identify a code of conduct that creates fewer differences. The modern ideology proposes a common understanding that enhances the formation of a common law. Modernists immensely criticize the religious views because of the prevailing wars in the world in the premodern era, which were associated with the differences attributed to religion. Notably, modernism acknowledges that reasoning does not explicitly establish meaning but improves a common view, which can be used to promote a shared code of conduct. However, the postmodern method of reasoning indicates that the modern technique leads to unnecessary privileges and disapprovals through binary inclusion and exclusion. Postmodernism proposes a neutral approach to eliminate the weaknesses of modernism by establishing meaning that are not relative. Nonetheless, the neutral mechanism of deriving definition seems unpractical because it is increasing difficult to establish definite and common meaning without relativity. In addition, postmodernism critics on modernism are based on language as means to determine meaning rather than a tool to convey meaning. Therefore, their reasoning promotes understanding, which can enhance a shared view and philosophy but does not explicitly determine its fundamental source. Reality
In most cases, definition of reality is an immense task to humanity and points to superhuman forces above the finite order of things. Specifically, relativity plays an essential role in articulating definitions that can be understood by a significant number of people. For instance, finite is expressed in relation to the infinite, while reality is articulated by expressing the surreal, and the known is understood in the context of the unknown.Notably, the three ideologies of identifying meaning and developing meaning incorporate the notion of relativism. For instance, the religious perspective includes relative, such as good and the bad, chosen and the forbidden, the truth and false, which are core to the code of conduct it promotes. Modernism, through criticism of the religious ideologies suggests a binary exclusion or inclusion method of understanding. For instance, modernism define good by excluding the bad, man by excluding the woman, moral by excluding the immoral, among others, through increased reasoning and learning from nature.Thus, the modern aspect of definition immensely borrows from the religious sentiments, which it focuses on invalidating. Reality
On the other hand, Postmodernism, improves on modernism by suggesting more reasoning from a neutral base hence eliminate unnecessary discrimination and privileges. However, neutral is believed to lie between the positive and the negative, which are a continuum of continuums. Establishing the correct position of neutral between the negative and positive may be impossible because there exist no defined boundary between the points. In addition, any point in the continuum forms two continuums between itself and the two points hence it is not possible to establish the precise definition of neutral. In this regard, the perspective of postmodernism is imprecisely defined and is similar to the concept of binary exclusion because neutral is related to the positive and the negative. Thus, reasoning improves understanding and enhancesexpression of meaning by making it more abstract but cannot create meaning. Reality
In conclusion, the source of meaning is still mysterious to humanity despite improved reasoning that enhance understanding. However, fundamental concept of reasoning used by the three methods described above is similar. The three methods emphasize a binary view of definition, which becomes more abstract as reasoning intensifies. Nevertheless, despite improved understanding from reasoning the binary element of definition remains constant. Notably, while it is identifiable that reasoning enhances understanding, it fails to eliminate its primary target hence its explicit impacts to definition are unknown. In addition, the binary aspect of definition can be termed as natural or real because it survives the impacts of hence above human reasoning. The source of definition can only be linked to forces above the reasoning and understanding of humanity hence creates a cycle of reasoning among the three ideologies. Thus, explicit impacts of reasoning to meaning are mystery to humanity and may require a more complex technique to fathom. Reality
Smith, Adam. The Whole Works of Adam Smith: In Five Volumes. Printed for J. Richardson and Co, 1822.
Wilchins, Riki Anne. Queer Theory, Gender Theory: An Instant Primer (large print 16pt). ReadHowYouWant.com, 2011.